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What is photosynthesis and mineral?:

Photosynthes is the process by which green plants and some other organisms use sunlight to synthesize nutrients from carbon dioxide and water. Photosynthesis in plants generally involves the green pigment chlorophyll and generates oxygen as a by-product. Mineral:a solid, naturally occurring inorganic substance.

Aug 30, 2014

What message will be conveyed to audience if the speaker stand erect and rigiourus on podium:

Describe the question in brief description. Else the message conveyed to the audience will be that the speaker is clueless and not confident enough to speak.

Aug 26, 2014

disaster management precautions:

Designate a person outside your area, who should be your contact point. Instead of all your friends and family members trying to reach you (after the news of the disaster spreads) – to enquire about you, you should maybe, inform just one person – outside the zone of disaster. This one person should inform other friends and relations. This serves three main purposes: After a disaster, everybody is calling all their loved ones – to enquire about their well-being. This causes a severe burden on the communication system – which are not designed to handle everybody on the phone at the same time. Hence, many of your friends and relatives are not able to get through you – and thus, their anxiety about you keeps getting increased. Instead, if it was pre-decided, they all would call just one person – who is outside the zone of disaster, and, the communication network there is not over-stretched. The already over-stretched telecom network is saved some load. This allows relief agencies to use the available telecom bandwidth for rescue and relief operations. Your own supply of batteries etc. lasts longer, if you receive fewer calls

Jul 18, 2014

Assignment for class 2 of cambridge co-ed.:

Kindly visit the Cambridge website and open the Assignments tab and download the Class 2nd's assignment.

May 30, 2014

forensic importance of dna of finger print in crime investigation give a investory projct on it n what type of model can i make on it:

DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) represents the blueprint of the human genetic makeup. It exists in virtually every cell of the human body and differs in its sequence of nucleotides (molecules that make up DNA, also abbreviated by letters, A, T, G, C; or, adenine, thymine, guanine, and cytosine, respectively). The human genome is made up of 3 billion nucleotides, which are 99.9% identical from one person to the next. The 0.1% variation, therefore, can be used to distinguish one individual from another. It is this difference that can be used by forensic scientists to match specimens of blood , tissue, or hair follicles to an individual with a high level of certainty. The complete DNA of each individual is unique, with the exception of identical twins. A DNA fingerprint, therefore, is a DNA pattern that has a unique sequence such that it can be distinguished from the DNA patterns of other individuals. DNA fingerprinting is also called DNA typing. DNA fingerprinting was first used for sample identification after the geneticist Alec J. Jeffreys from the University of Leicester in Great Britain discovered that there are patterns of genetic material that are unique to almost every individual. He called these repetitive DNA sequences "minisatellites." The two major uses for the information provided by DNA-fingerprinting analysis are for personal identification and for the determination of paternity. DNA fingerprinting is based on DNA analyzed from regions in the genome that separate genes called introns. Introns are regions within a gene that are not part of the protein the gene encodes. They are spliced out during processing of the messenger RNA, which is an intermediate molecule that allows DNA to encode protein. This is in contrast to DNA analysis looking for disease causing mutations, where the majority of mutations involve regions in the genes that code for protein called exons. DNA fingerprinting usually involves introns because exons are much more conserved and therefore, have less variability in their sequence. DNA fingerprinting was originally used to identify genetic diseases by linking disease genes within a family based on the inheritance of the segregating markers and the likelihood that they would be in close proximity, but it also became used for criminal investigations and forensic science. In general, the United States courts accept the reliability of DNA analysis and have included these results into evidence in many court cases. However, the accuracy of the results, the cost of testing, and the misuse of the technique have made it controversial. In forensics laboratories, DNA can be analyzed from a variety of human samples including blood, semen , saliva , urine, hair, buccal (cheek cells), tissues, or bones. DNA can be extracted from these samples and analyzed in a lab and results from these studies are compared to DNA analyzed from known samples. DNA extracted from a sample obtained from a crime scene then can be compared and possibly matched with DNA extracted from the victim or suspect. DNA can be extracted from two different sources within the cell. DNA found in the nucleus of the cell, also called nuclear DNA (nDNA) is larger and contains all the information that makes us who we are. It is tightly wound into structures called chromosomes. DNA can also be found in an organelle within the cell called the mitochondria, which functions to produce energy that drives all the cellular processes necessary for life. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is much smaller, contains only 16,569 nucleotide bases (compared with nDNA, which contains 3.9 billion) and it is not wound up into chromosomes. Instead, it is circular and there are many copies of it. Nuclear DNA is analyzed in evidence containing blood, semen, saliva, body tissues, and hair follicles. DNA from the mitochondria, however, is usually analyzed in evidence containing hair fragments, bones, and teeth. Mitochondrial DNA analysis is typically performed in cases where there is an insufficient amount of sample, the nDNA is uninformative, or if supplemental information is necessary. Unlike nDNA, where one copy of a chromosome comes from the father and the other from the mother, mtDNA is exclusively inherited from the maternal side. Therefore, the maternal mtDNA should be the same as her offspring. This can be helpful in cases where it is not possible to obtain a sample from the suspect but it is possible to obtain a sample from one of the suspect's biologically related family members. By doing so, the suspect can be excluded as the culprit of a crime if the results indicate that the relevant family member's mtDNA does not match the mtDNA fingerprint from the sample. Mitochondrial DNA can be informative in a different way than nDNA. Less than 10% of the mitochondrial genome is noncoding and localized in a region called the D-loop. In this region, there are sequence variations that are inherited that can be used for forensic purposes. These regions, called hypervariable regions, are broken down into two sections: HV1 and HV2. It is within these regions that inherited sequence variations can be identified. One of the main reasons mtDNA analysis can be helpful to forensic scientists is that in some tissues, mitochondrial DNA is in excess compared to nDNA. As nDNA exists in chromosomes and there are only two copies of each chromosome (one inherited maternally, the other paternally) per cell, the nDNA copy number is much smaller. The mitochondrial genome can have a copy number of 2–10 per organelle and in some cases the number of organelles can reach the hundreds. For example, in muscle tissue, where the demand for energy is highest, there are a larger number of copies of the mitochondrial genome. Analysis of mtDNA, therefore, can be particularly helpful in forensic cases where sample integrity or size is compromised or when confirmation is needed. There are many methods that forensic scientists use to determine the sample's DNA fingerprint. Once DNA is extracted, it can then be analyzed using a variety of molecular genetics techniques. In some cases, there is not enough DNA to directly evaluate it. If this occurs, a technique called the polymerase chain reaction (PCR ) is used to amplify the genomic DNA from a sample. This procedure allows a scientist to amplify a specific sequence of DNA in the genome exponentially, so that it is in large enough quantities to be analyzed. DNA analysis can be performed by sequencing the amplified DNA fragment using fluorescently labeled nucleotides and a laser that will recognize the nucleotide based on the fluorescent label to which it is attached. This technique is expensive, may not be informative, and is generally not the best approach to DNA fingerprint a sample. If there is enough DNA, the DNA extracted from the sample can be cut or segmented using specific enzymes (proteins that speed up chemical reactions) called restriction endonucleases that act as molecular scissors by cutting specific sequences that they recognize. By cutting in the same sequence that is present in different locations throughout the genome, a pattern of fragments can be formed. Differences in the sequence patterns between two samples can be due to inherited variations in the DNA that can distinguish two different samples. Once the DNA is cut, the segments are arranged by size using a process called electrophoresis , whereby an electrical field is generated, pulling the negatively charged DNA toward the positively charged end through a gel-like matrix. The segments are marked with radioactive probes and exposed on x-ray film, where they form a characteristic pattern of black bars. This pattern is called the DNA fingerprint. If the DNA fingerprints produced from two different samples match, the two samples are likely to have come from the same person. DNA can also be processed and cut with restriction enzymes. If there is a variation in a particular sequence that results in the enzyme no longer recognizing and cutting the DNA (or a loss of the cut site), a larger fragment will be observed when running the DNA in a gel by electrophoresis. Using a chemical that binds to DNA (called ethidium bromide) and fluoresces when it is excited by ultraviolet radiation, the fragments can be observed on a gel based on size. Bigger fragments will migrate more slowly in the gel. An individual with the sequence variation in which the enzyme does not cut would have a longer size fragment than the individual with the variation the enzyme does cut. The original DNA fingerprinting procedure used Variable Number Tandem Repeats (VNTR), which are repetitive DNA sequences that are spread throughout the genome in noncoding regions. These targets are large, with repeat numbers that are variable from person to person and have a repeat size composed of hundreds of nucleotides which can be repeated a hundred times. The biggest problem with using the VNTR-fingerprinting approach is that DNA extracted from samples in a crime scene, such as from a dried blood stain, is often broken up into tiny pieces due in most cases to natural DNA-degrading processes. This can make DNA analysis difficult, unless informative fragments remain intact. Additionally, the smaller the sample, the more likely it will be degraded. For example, a plucked hair might contain up to 30 nanograms (30 ng, or 30 billionths of one gram) of genomic DNA, but a hair shaft without the root might maximally only contain 0.1 ng of DNA. The integrity of the sample as well as the quantity, therefore, can make reliable and definitive identity determination difficult. More recent approaches have circumvented the problem associated with degraded DNA. Shorter repetitive sequences, or short tandem repeats (STR), were later identified and found to contain repeat core units of three, four, or five nucleotides long and have a complete length of only 80–400 nucleotides. Due to the shortness of these sequences, only 50 pg of DNA (which is almost a 1000 times less than that found in a hair shaft without the root) is required. The discriminating power, when analyzing STRs at multiple locations with the genome, can match persons with a probability of 1 in 1015 to a stain. The DNA fingerprint using STR analysis can, therefore, be an extremely powerful technique in forensic sciences. With the completion of the human genome sequence and the rapid post-genomic characterization of the sequences, it has become easier to analyze samples pertinent for forensic applications. In fact, forensic scientists have been able to link a suspect to the scene of a crime using dried chewing gum, the cells in the saliva from the butt of a cigarette, and cells found underneath fingernails. DNA fingerprinting, therefore, has revolutionized the forensic sciences by its use in investigations and prosecutions of active criminal cases, missing persons investigations, re-examining dead-end cases, post-conviction exoneration, and studies where maternal relatedness is in question.

May 29, 2014

forensic importance of dna of finger print in crime investigation give a investory projct on it n what type of model can i make on it:

DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) represents the blueprint of the human genetic makeup. It exists in virtually every cell of the human body and differs in its sequence of nucleotides (molecules that make up DNA, also abbreviated by letters, A, T, G, C; or, adenine, thymine, guanine, and cytosine, respectively). The human genome is made up of 3 billion nucleotides, which are 99.9% identical from one person to the next. The 0.1% variation, therefore, can be used to distinguish one individual from another. It is this difference that can be used by forensic scientists to match specimens of blood , tissue, or hair follicles to an individual with a high level of certainty. The complete DNA of each individual is unique, with the exception of identical twins. A DNA fingerprint, therefore, is a DNA pattern that has a unique sequence such that it can be distinguished from the DNA patterns of other individuals. DNA fingerprinting is also called DNA typing. DNA fingerprinting was first used for sample identification after the geneticist Alec J. Jeffreys from the University of Leicester in Great Britain discovered that there are patterns of genetic material that are unique to almost every individual. He called these repetitive DNA sequences "minisatellites." The two major uses for the information provided by DNA-fingerprinting analysis are for personal identification and for the determination of paternity. DNA fingerprinting is based on DNA analyzed from regions in the genome that separate genes called introns. Introns are regions within a gene that are not part of the protein the gene encodes. They are spliced out during processing of the messenger RNA, which is an intermediate molecule that allows DNA to encode protein. This is in contrast to DNA analysis looking for disease causing mutations, where the majority of mutations involve regions in the genes that code for protein called exons. DNA fingerprinting usually involves introns because exons are much more conserved and therefore, have less variability in their sequence. DNA fingerprinting was originally used to identify genetic diseases by linking disease genes within a family based on the inheritance of the segregating markers and the likelihood that they would be in close proximity, but it also became used for criminal investigations and forensic science. In general, the United States courts accept the reliability of DNA analysis and have included these results into evidence in many court cases. However, the accuracy of the results, the cost of testing, and the misuse of the technique have made it controversial. In forensics laboratories, DNA can be analyzed from a variety of human samples including blood, semen , saliva , urine, hair, buccal (cheek cells), tissues, or bones. DNA can be extracted from these samples and analyzed in a lab and results from these studies are compared to DNA analyzed from known samples. DNA extracted from a sample obtained from a crime scene then can be compared and possibly matched with DNA extracted from the victim or suspect. DNA can be extracted from two different sources within the cell. DNA found in the nucleus of the cell, also called nuclear DNA (nDNA) is larger and contains all the information that makes us who we are. It is tightly wound into structures called chromosomes. DNA can also be found in an organelle within the cell called the mitochondria, which functions to produce energy that drives all the cellular processes necessary for life. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is much smaller, contains only 16,569 nucleotide bases (compared with nDNA, which contains 3.9 billion) and it is not wound up into chromosomes. Instead, it is circular and there are many copies of it. Nuclear DNA is analyzed in evidence containing blood, semen, saliva, body tissues, and hair follicles. DNA from the mitochondria, however, is usually analyzed in evidence containing hair fragments, bones, and teeth. Mitochondrial DNA analysis is typically performed in cases where there is an insufficient amount of sample, the nDNA is uninformative, or if supplemental information is necessary. Unlike nDNA, where one copy of a chromosome comes from the father and the other from the mother, mtDNA is exclusively inherited from the maternal side. Therefore, the maternal mtDNA should be the same as her offspring. This can be helpful in cases where it is not possible to obtain a sample from the suspect but it is possible to obtain a sample from one of the suspect's biologically related family members. By doing so, the suspect can be excluded as the culprit of a crime if the results indicate that the relevant family member's mtDNA does not match the mtDNA fingerprint from the sample. Mitochondrial DNA can be informative in a different way than nDNA. Less than 10% of the mitochondrial genome is noncoding and localized in a region called the D-loop. In this region, there are sequence variations that are inherited that can be used for forensic purposes. These regions, called hypervariable regions, are broken down into two sections: HV1 and HV2. It is within these regions that inherited sequence variations can be identified. One of the main reasons mtDNA analysis can be helpful to forensic scientists is that in some tissues, mitochondrial DNA is in excess compared to nDNA. As nDNA exists in chromosomes and there are only two copies of each chromosome (one inherited maternally, the other paternally) per cell, the nDNA copy number is much smaller. The mitochondrial genome can have a copy number of 2–10 per organelle and in some cases the number of organelles can reach the hundreds. For example, in muscle tissue, where the demand for energy is highest, there are a larger number of copies of the mitochondrial genome. Analysis of mtDNA, therefore, can be particularly helpful in forensic cases where sample integrity or size is compromised or when confirmation is needed. There are many methods that forensic scientists use to determine the sample's DNA fingerprint. Once DNA is extracted, it can then be analyzed using a variety of molecular genetics techniques. In some cases, there is not enough DNA to directly evaluate it. If this occurs, a technique called the polymerase chain reaction (PCR ) is used to amplify the genomic DNA from a sample. This procedure allows a scientist to amplify a specific sequence of DNA in the genome exponentially, so that it is in large enough quantities to be analyzed. DNA analysis can be performed by sequencing the amplified DNA fragment using fluorescently labeled nucleotides and a laser that will recognize the nucleotide based on the fluorescent label to which it is attached. This technique is expensive, may not be informative, and is generally not the best approach to DNA fingerprint a sample. If there is enough DNA, the DNA extracted from the sample can be cut or segmented using specific enzymes (proteins that speed up chemical reactions) called restriction endonucleases that act as molecular scissors by cutting specific sequences that they recognize. By cutting in the same sequence that is present in different locations throughout the genome, a pattern of fragments can be formed. Differences in the sequence patterns between two samples can be due to inherited variations in the DNA that can distinguish two different samples. Once the DNA is cut, the segments are arranged by size using a process called electrophoresis , whereby an electrical field is generated, pulling the negatively charged DNA toward the positively charged end through a gel-like matrix. The segments are marked with radioactive probes and exposed on x-ray film, where they form a characteristic pattern of black bars. This pattern is called the DNA fingerprint. If the DNA fingerprints produced from two different samples match, the two samples are likely to have come from the same person. DNA can also be processed and cut with restriction enzymes. If there is a variation in a particular sequence that results in the enzyme no longer recognizing and cutting the DNA (or a loss of the cut site), a larger fragment will be observed when running the DNA in a gel by electrophoresis. Using a chemical that binds to DNA (called ethidium bromide) and fluoresces when it is excited by ultraviolet radiation, the fragments can be observed on a gel based on size. Bigger fragments will migrate more slowly in the gel. An individual with the sequence variation in which the enzyme does not cut would have a longer size fragment than the individual with the variation the enzyme does cut. The original DNA fingerprinting procedure used Variable Number Tandem Repeats (VNTR), which are repetitive DNA sequences that are spread throughout the genome in noncoding regions. These targets are large, with repeat numbers that are variable from person to person and have a repeat size composed of hundreds of nucleotides which can be repeated a hundred times. The biggest problem with using the VNTR-fingerprinting approach is that DNA extracted from samples in a crime scene, such as from a dried blood stain, is often broken up into tiny pieces due in most cases to natural DNA-degrading processes. This can make DNA analysis difficult, unless informative fragments remain intact. Additionally, the smaller the sample, the more likely it will be degraded. For example, a plucked hair might contain up to 30 nanograms (30 ng, or 30 billionths of one gram) of genomic DNA, but a hair shaft without the root might maximally only contain 0.1 ng of DNA. The integrity of the sample as well as the quantity, therefore, can make reliable and definitive identity determination difficult. More recent approaches have circumvented the problem associated with degraded DNA. Shorter repetitive sequences, or short tandem repeats (STR), were later identified and found to contain repeat core units of three, four, or five nucleotides long and have a complete length of only 80–400 nucleotides. Due to the shortness of these sequences, only 50 pg of DNA (which is almost a 1000 times less than that found in a hair shaft without the root) is required. The discriminating power, when analyzing STRs at multiple locations with the genome, can match persons with a probability of 1 in 1015 to a stain. The DNA fingerprint using STR analysis can, therefore, be an extremely powerful technique in forensic sciences. With the completion of the human genome sequence and the rapid post-genomic characterization of the sequences, it has become easier to analyze samples pertinent for forensic applications. In fact, forensic scientists have been able to link a suspect to the scene of a crime using dried chewing gum, the cells in the saliva from the butt of a cigarette, and cells found underneath fingernails. DNA fingerprinting, therefore, has revolutionized the forensic sciences by its use in investigations and prosecutions of active criminal cases, missing persons investigations, re-examining dead-end cases, post-conviction exoneration, and studies where maternal relatedness is in question.

May 29, 2014

How to search holidays h.w. of grade 1:

Visit the Cambridge website and u can easily download the same by clicking on the assignments tab.

May 28, 2014

short biosketch on sardar fauja singh:

Bhai Fauja Singh was born on 17th May 1936 in District Gurdaspur. His father Sardar Surain Singh was a middle class farmer. After the formation of Pakistan they moved to the village of Gazneepur, which is 6 miles on the Gurdaspur Dera Baba Nanak road. During his childhood days Fauja Singh always used to be the leader of boys of a similar age in his village. He got baptised while he was studying in the tenth class, but because he did not receive the gift of Naam, the spiritual hunger inside him did not disappear and his mind was always elsewhere. At this small age he disappeared from home for one month and stayed with some Sants and Sadhs. After passing the tenth class he enrolled in Khalsa College, Amritsar, but still his mind was elsewhere. He then again disappeared. His family looked for him everywhere and even advertised in the papers. He stayed away from home for 2 years at the Deras of the Sants and Sadhs to try to satisfy his spiritual hunger. A false Sadh gave him a Mantar on which he meditated for 2 years. Then he was found and brought home and his family again put him into College. In 1964, he got baptised at a smagam organised by the Akhand Kirtani Jatha. On Vaisakhi 1965 his marriage took place with Bibi Amarjit Kaur and on this occasion Bhai Jeevan Singh performed the Kirtan. At the age of 28 Bhai Fauja Singh again took up the appearance that was most loved by the Tenth Guru. Whoever the Guru blesses, he shows that person how to wear the uniform of Akal Purakh`s Khalsa army. Bhai Fauja Singh learnt Gatka and persuaded other young Sikhs to learn it as well. He was the best Gatka player in the area and there was nobody around who could beat him.

Apr 12, 2014

the structure of income ineuality in india ?:

Structural inequality is defined as a condition where one category of people are attributed an unequal status in relation to other categories of people. This relationship is perpetuated and reinforced by a confluence of unequal relations in roles, functions, decisions, rights, and opportunities. As opposed to cultural inequality, which focuses on the individual decisions associated with these imbalances, structural inequality refers specifically to the inequalities that are systemically rooted in the normal operations of dominant social institutions, and can be divided into categories like residential segregation or healthcare, employment and educational discrimination. Globalization has a complex association with development and inequality, and mandates a new framework to help describe its effects. On one level, global competition in production can lead to productivity improvements that lead to a situation where industrial employment falls behind industrial output in a local market. This can have an enormous impact on developing economies that focus on industrialization. At the same time, the liberalization of trade policies may be the only method of securing growth for land-locked developing nations. Combating structural inequality therefore often requires the broad, policy based structural change on behalf of government organizations, and is often a critical component of poverty reduction. In many ways, a well organized democratic government that can effectively combine moderate growth with re-distributive policies stands the best chance of combating structural inequality.

Feb 19, 2014

what is income inequality ? explain in breif ?:

The unequal distribution of household or individual income across the various participants in an economy. Income inequality is often presented as the percentage of income to a percentage of population. For example, a statistic may indicate that 70% of a country's income is controlled by 20% of that country's residents. It is often associated with the idea of income "fairness". It is generally considered "unfair" if the rich have a dis- proportionally larger portion of a country's income compared to their population. The causes of income inequality can vary significantly by region, gender, education and social status. Economists are divided as to whether income equality is ultimately positive or negative and what are the implications of such disparity.

Feb 19, 2014

plzz reply on my question of media n languge role in gender senstivity soon ii need it:

The aim of UNESCO’s action relating Gender-Sensitive Indicators for Media (GSIM) is to give impetus to gender equality and women’s empowerment in and through media of all forms, irrespective of the technology used. UNESCO’s commitment to gender equality and women’s empowerment is pursued through gender-specific programming and gender mainstreaming with action in all of its fields of competence. UNESCO’s Communication and Information Sector has engaged globally in a wide range of gender-specific initiatives. The two perspectives, equality between women and men working in the media, and equality in news reporting on women and men, are of equal importance and are being stridently pursued. It is against this backdrop that UNESCO, in cooperation with the International Federation of Journalists and many other partners, has elaborated this global framework of Gender-Sensitive Indicators for Media. This is a part of a suite of indicators being developed across all sectors of the organization to enable effective assessment of diagnosis of areas within UNESCO’s mandate of media development. There through use/application of the GSIM, UNESCO seeks to enhance the capacity of reporters, media managers/executives, media organizations, and citizens’ media groups to reduce stereotypical representation of women in media, and to mainstream gender equality considerations into their policies and practices. While training is of key importance, real and progressive change in non-stereotypical representation of women will not be accelerated without the complementary policy requirements put in place. In this context UNESCO is partnering with key broadcast/print media unions/associations to adapt and pilot the GSIM within their member organisations. These partners include, African Union of Broadcasters, Caribbean Broadcasting Union, OTI (Organización de Telecomunicaciones Iberoamericanas), Asia Pacific Broadcasting, and COPEAM (Permanent Conference of the Mediterranean Audiovisual Operators)

Feb 18, 2014

ii want to make aa science model for science ehibition organised by cbse, so plzz hlp me by giving some instructions on working model of hydroponics. provide me any sort of videos related to it if possible.....:

What is the Effect of Hydroponics on the Root Growth of Peperomia Shoots? Researched by Carissa H. 1998-99 PURPOSE HYPOTHESIS EXPERIMENT DESIGN MATERIALS PROCEDURES RESULTS CONCLUSION RESEARCH REPORT BIBLIOGRAPHY PURPOSE The purpose of this experiment was to determine in which condition plant shoots grow roots best: the conditions were in chemical solution, tap water, and soil. I became interested in this idea when I saw that some plants can grow hydroponically and others cannot. The information gained from this experiment can give scientists ideas on future experiments. Scientist have not proven whether or not hydroponic gardening could substitute for normal gardening. This information gained can also help gardeners possibly grow stronger healthier plants. HYPOTHESIS My hypothesis is that when starting leaves hydroponically that roots will grow faster than the leaves in soil. I base my hypothesis on the fact that when leaves fall to the ground, in dirt or mud, they do not grow roots. I also base my hypothesis on what Raymond Bridwell wrote in his book, ìThe Magic of Hydroponic Gardening.î The book says this process is, (In this quotation he is writing about growing plants through hydroponic gardening.) ìÖmodern, automated hydroponic gardening.î EXPERIMENT DESIGN The constants in this study were: -the location of each container -the size of each container (165 ml) -the type of plant ( Peperomia ) -amount of water each plant received every other day (15 ml) -each plants growing time (2 weeks) -the type of each container (Plastic cups) -the size of each plant shoot -temperature where plants are growing The manipulated variable was to find out in which condition plant shoots grow roots best. There were three groups with three plants in each group. Each group received a different substance (water, chemical solution, and soil). The responding variable was the growth of each plant roots after two weeks. I checked to see in what condition the plants grew best. To measure the responding variable I measured all groups in millimeters after two weeks. MATERIALS LIST Quantity Item Description 9 Plastic 165 ml clear cups 9 Plant shoots 10 cm long 1 Bottle of Shultz Plant Food Plus 1 Bag of potting soil (House plant) 1 Bag of 165 ml cups (at least 9) 1 Designated room for growing 2 Peperomia plants (in 20 cm pots) 1 Portable tray PROCEDURES Gather materials. Take the nine plastic 165 milliliter cups out of the package and place them in front of you. Take three cups, and with a black pen, label them Group #1 on the bottom of the cup. Label the first three cups in Group #1 like this: The first cup a The second cup b The third cup c Place cups on the portable table in a row. Take three more cups, and with a black pen, label them Group #2 on the bottom of the cup. Then label these like in step four. Place cups on the portable table in a row. Take the last three cups, and on the bottom of the cup, label these cups Group #3. Label these cups like in step four. Place on the portable tray in a row. Fill Group #1 with 50 milliliters of cool tap water. Fill Group #2 with 37.5 millimeters of potting soil and 15 milliliters of cool tap water. Make chemical growth solution. Use 10 drops of Shultz Plant Food Plus and one liter of cool tap water . Fill Group #3 with 50 milliliters of the chemical growth solution. Cut 9 plant shoots making sure that each is 10 centimeters long. Place one of the shoots in the center of each cup, so that the bottom tip of the plant just touched the bottom of the cup. In Group #2 make it so that the potting soil holds the plant straight. Move the tray into the designated room. Place the tray in front of the window in the designated room. Water each plant that is in Group #2 every other day starting on the second day of your experiment. When watering use 15 milliliters of cool tap water. Measure roots at the end of 2 weeks. Record length of root from the base of the leaf to the tip of the root when gently pulled straight. Repeat steps 2-23 for a second trial. RESULTS The original purpose of this experiment was to determine whether or not hydroponic gardening works better than soil gardening. To also see in which condition roots grow best on 10 cm plant shoots. The results of the experiment were that the best growing plants were the plants growing in the hydroponic groups. The group with the smallest growth were the soil groups. CONCLUSION My hypothesis was that the plants growing hydroponically would grow better than the plants that were growing in the soil groups. The results indicate that my hypothesis should be accepted because I had said that the hydroponic groups would grow better than the soil groups. Because of this experiment, I wonder what type of rule there might be according to the type of plants that will grow hydroponically. If I were to conduct this experiment again I would try another plant and also more tests in each group. RESEARCH REPORT Do you know that hydroponic gardening has been around for nearly 200 years? It was first developed in the 1800ís. So what is the hydroponic gardening method? It is the process in growing plants in substances other than soil. Even though it has been around for so long, a lot of people do not even know what hydroponic gardening is. Hydroponic gardening is probably a better, faster way to grow plants than growing plants in soil. Hydroponic gardening is the process in growing plants without using soil. This method has been around for almost 200 years and scientists still do not know if it is a better way to grow plants or not. It works with three main methods water culture, chemical culture, and gravel culture. All three of these methods provide essential nutrients to all plants. The growing medium, or the condition that the plants are growing in, can be anything that provides the essential elements that plants need to grow. When growing plants in the hydroponic gardening method people still have to use the same amount of light and water. Hydroponic gardening works, but soil does too. The difference between hydroponic gardening and growing plants in soil is that hydroponic gardening is not as available. This is because most people can use soil in their yard why would they want to buy chemicals? Maybe because hydroponic gardening works better. People still use soil because it is available and they do not know too much about hydroponic gardening. When you use soil by planting a plant you are enriching your soil. This also breaks up the rock to make it easier to grow plants. They also leave nutrients behind after they decay. Soil can work probably just as well as hydroponic gardening. There are three different types of cultures in the hydroponic gardening method. The three methods are; the gravel culture, the water culture, and the chemical culture. In the gravel culture people use gravel, water and sometimes chemical. The gravel culture supports the plant so that the plant is suspended above water. In the water culture people often use plain water. This method is helpful because water supplies some of the essential elements that plants need to grow. In the water culture, however, the plant is not supported. In the chemical culture people use a variety of chemicals. This method is helpful because this way you can test to see which chemicals work best in hydroponic gardening. Although in this method again the plant is not supported. Water can not affect plant growth can it? Yes it can and it is one of the main culture types of hydroponic gardening. Water contains essential nutrients that can help plants grow. Water is made of 2 hydrogen and 1 oxygen molecule. The weight of water is mostly the oxygen that is 88.8% of the weight while hydrogen is 11.2% of the weight. Plants can grow in water as long as the part where a leaf grows is under water because that is where roots will grow best. The growth of roots is influenced by where the water source is. Water culture is when you place a plant in water and expect it to grow. The water culture is one of the main types of the hydroponic gardening method. All plants have a certain climate that they grow best. The best climate for the plant Peperomia is medium light and fairly dry soil. Many plants can grow roots on a cutting. Some examples might be Pothas, Grape Ivy, Wandering Jew, and Peperomia. In order for plants to grow hydroponically, a leaf must have been cut off of the original shoot. Where leafs were or where leafs were trying to grow is the part that must be under water because that is where roots grow. The roots on plants always grow toward gravity. All plants need water but some do not need as much as other plants. Even when growing hydroponically the plants still need the same amount of water. The hydroponic gardening method is probably a better method than the normal soil gardening method. As you can see hydroponic gardening works. Soil might be the old way to garden, but it still is a good way to grow plants. Plants can grow in many different substances. There are many types of plants that will work when trying to grow them hydroponically. There are three main types of cultures in the hydroponic gardening method. Hydroponic gardening has been around for years and still many people do not know that it exists. BIBLIOGRAPHY Armstrong, Joseph. "Auxin," The World Book Encyclopedia. 1994. Vol.1. Pp.988 Baker, Jerry. The World Book Encyclopedia. 1994. Vol.8. Pp.37-39 Bridwell, Raymond. Hydroponic Gardening. Santa Barbara, California Woodbridge Press Publishing Company, 1982. Pp. 79-86 Carlson, William H. "Hydroponics," The World Book Encyclopedia 1994. Vol. 9. Pp. 469-470 DiMichele, William A. The World Book Encyclopedia. 1994. Vol. 15. Pp.536-539 Keating, Richard C. The World Book Encyclopedia 1994. Vol. 8. Pp.173 Poincelot, Raymond P. The World Book Encyclopedia. 1994. Vol. 2. Pp. 474-475 Wagner, David H. ìPhotosynthesis,î The World Book Encyclopedia. 1988. Vol. 15 Pp.434

Feb 17, 2014

factual description on computer/laptop....:

A personal computer (PC) is a general-purpose computer, whose size, capabilities and original sale price makes it useful for individuals, and which is intended to be operated directly by an end-user with no intervening computer operator. This contrasted with the batch processing or time-sharing models which allowed larger, more expensive minicomputer and mainframe systems to be used by many people, usually at the same time. Large data processing systems require a full-time staff to operate efficiently. Software applications for most personal computers include, but are not limited to, word processing, spreadsheets, databases, Web browsers and e-mail clients, digital media playback, games and myriad personal productivity and special-purpose software applications. Modern personal computers often have connections to the Internet, allowing access to the World Wide Web and a wide range of other resources. Personal computers may be connected to a local area network (LAN), either by a cable or a wireless connection. A personal computer may be a desktop computer or a laptop, tablet or a handheld PC. Early PC owners usually had to write their own programs to do anything useful with the machines, even lacking an operating system. The very earliest microcomputers, equipped with a front panel, required hand-loading of a bootstrap program to load programs from external storage (paper tape, cassettes, or eventually diskettes). Before very long, automatic booting from permanent read-only memory became universal. Today's users have access to a wide range of commercial software, freeware and free and open-source software, which is provided in ready-to-run or ready-to-compile form. Since the early 1990s, Microsoft operating systems and Intel hardware have dominated much of the personal computer market, first with MS-DOS and then with Windows. Popular alternatives to Microsoft's Windows operating systems include Apple's OS X and the free open-source Linux and BSD operating systems. AnD provides the major alternative to Intel's central processing units. Applications and games for PCs are typically developed and distributed independently from the hardware or OS manufacturers, whereas software for many mobile phones and other portable systems is approved and distributed through a centralized online store. A laptop is a portable personal computer with a clam shell form factor, suitable for mobile use.They are also sometimes called notebook computers or notebooks. Laptops are commonly used in a variety of settings, including work, education, and personal multimedia. They are frequently used as a primary PC platform among young people. A laptop combines the components and inputs as a desktop computer; including display, speakers keyboard, and pointing device (such as a touch-pad), into a single device. Most modern-day laptop computers also have a webcam and a mic (microphone) pre-installed.[citation needed] A laptop can be powered either from a rechargeable battery, or by mains electricity via an AC adapter. Laptops are a diverse category of devices, and other more specific terms, such as ultra books or net books, refer to specialist types of laptop which have been optimized for certain uses. Hardware specifications change vastly between these classifications, forgoing greater and greater degrees of processing power to reduce heat emissions. Portable computers, originally monochrome CRT-based and developed into the modern laptops, were originally considered to be a small niche market, mostly for specialized field applications such as the military, accountants and sales representatives. As portable computers became smaller, lighter, cheaper, and more powerful and as screens became smaller and of better quality, laptops became very widely used for a variety of purposes.

Feb 14, 2014

why we have 2 eyes??:

You need two eyes because they give you binocular vision or stereoscopic vision. The eyes provide the brain two different views or scenes of what is seen or being looked at. The brain can then use these views to estimate the depth and distance of objects or people.

Feb 14, 2014

what is gender senstivity?? n gender discriminatin is in which way related to it?:

The terms and concepts presented here are grouped under two general headings: Gender Sensitivity and Gender Mainstreaming. The first grouping consists of basic concepts that a person preparing for GAD work should learn, while the second grouping includes concepts related to "doing GAD" work. They are annotated definitions gathered from different GAD resource materials listed as an annex at the end of the chapter. Most of these resource materials are also used as sources and references in the lecture-discussions. Gender Sensitivity Advocacy A conscientization strategy concerned with increasing people's sensitivity to the implications of gender inequality, and demanding that problems of gender discrimination be identified and overcome in policies and programs. Advocacy entails an activist and assertive form of gender awareness, vigilance that gender issues are not overlooked, and persistence that gender issues be addressed. Affirmative Action A policy action that favors marginalized groups in society, such as women. While it is a special measure, it is not considered discriminatory since it aims to accelerate the attainment of equality between the dominant and marginalized groups. Affirmative action should not result in unequal or separate standards and must be continued even when the objectives of equality of opportunity and treatment have been achieved. An example of an affirmative action is allocating 50 percent of top positions in the bureaucracy to women as an acknowledgment that sociopolitical conditions exist which prevent women from ascending to those positions. Biological Determinism A theory that biological differences between women and men dictate a difference in social roles and personality, and that these differences reinforce the notion that men are superior and women are inferior. Class vs Status Class refers to the degree to which one has access to social and economic resources, with the upper class having the greatest access and the lower and middle classes having proportionately less. It is typically measured by a person's income or the relative status of her or his occupation. Status, or prestige, is the social value attached to one's position in the class hierarchy. Condition vs Position Condition refers to women's perceptible or objective state. It is the state of their relationship with their surroundings and immediate sphere of experience. Position refers to their social and economic standing relative to men.

Feb 13, 2014

Generally wat is the student's fav subject? nd Wat is the worst subject for a student??:

It depends upon the interest of students, Students have more interest in Maths and English and less interest in History and Geography.

Feb 2, 2014

small discussion on what to do till the end of the year????:

One needs to plan his short term goals to achieve the long term goal.

Feb 2, 2014

why students consider studies as a burden??:

Due to the lack of interest in studies, students consider it as burden.

Jan 28, 2014

an essay on fostering respect for differences and on conflict resolution:

Coexistence is a state in which two or more groups are living together while respecting their differences and resolving their conflicts nonviolently. Although the idea of coexistence is not new, the term came into common usage during the Cold War. The policy of 'peaceful coexistence' was used in the context of U.S. and U.S.S.R. relations. Initially, it was a cover for aggression, but then it developed as a tool for reframing the relationship between the two powers. In the late '80s, the policy of peaceful coexistence included principles such as "nonaggression, respect for sovereignty, national independence, and noninterference in internal affairs. Coexistence has been defined in numerous ways: • To exist together (in time or place) and to exist in mutual tolerance. • To learn to recognize and live with difference. • To have a relationship between persons or groups in which none of the parties is trying to destroy the other. • To interact with a commitment to tolerance, mutual respect, and the agreement to settle conflicts without recourse to violence. At the core of coexistence is the awareness that individuals and groups differ in numerous ways including class, ethnicity, religion, gender, and political inclination. These group identities may be the causes of conflicts, contribute to the causes of conflicts, or may be solidified as conflicts develop and escalate. A policy of coexistence, however, diminishes the likelihood that identity group differences will escalate into a damaging or intractable conflict. Coexistence and Conflict Additional insights intocoexistence are offered by Beyond Intractability project participants. Conflict is ubiquitous and occurs at the individual, community, institutional, and national levels. Many conflicts are localized and expressed nonviolently. In fact, conflict can be constructive and in many instances it is fundamental to social change.[6] However, conflict that is widespread and expressed violently appears to have increased over recent decades, impelling the global community to examine the root causes of conflicts and analyze conflict theory and management in greater detail. While times of coexistence do not exclude conflict, they do exclude widespread violence. Conflict resolution, otherwise known as Reconciliation, is conceptualized as the methods and processes involved in facilitating the peaceful ending of conflict and retribution. Often, committed group members attempt to resolve group conflicts by actively communicating information about their conflicting motives or ideologies to the rest of the group (e.g., intentions; reasons for holding certain beliefs), and by engaging in collective negotiation. Ultimately, a wide range of methods and procedures for addressing conflict exist, including but not limited to, negotiation, mediation, diplomacy, and creative peace building. The term conflict resolution may also be used interchangeably with dispute resolution, where arbitration and litigation processes are critically involved. Furthermore, the concept of conflict resolution can be thought to encompass the use of nonviolent resistance measures by conflicted parties in an attempt to promote effective resolution. For examples of large-scale civil resistance campaigns, see Civil Resistance and Power Politics: The Experience of Non-violent Action from Gandhi to the Present. Conflict resolution as an academic field is relatively new. George Mason University in Fairfax, VA was the first university to offer a PhD program.

Jan 27, 2014

subhash Chandra Bose biosketch........as soon as possi....:

Subhas Chandra was born on 23 January, 1897 in Cuttack. His father named Rai Bahadur Janakinath Bose was a Government pleader working there. Subhas had obtained his early education at Cuttack. In his childhood, the influ­ence of his mother Probhavati Devi and that of the Headmaster named Beni Madhav Das taught him to learn about the ancient heritage of his motherland and to love India more than anything else in his life. Subhas had his college education at Calcutta. He left for England on 15 September, 1919 to appear at the Indian Civil Service Examination, as desired by his father. He passed the examination by coming out 'Fourth' among the successful candidates, but he did not want to serve the British Government. So he resigned to the lucrative post offered to him. He returned to India and joined the Indian National Congress to fight for the independence of India. Subhas was sent to jail about eleven times in his life. He became the President of the Congress Party, but later, resigned due to his differences of opinion with Gandhiji. When the World War II broke in 1941, Subhas was interned in his Calcutta home under constant police guard'. He did not come out of his house for 40 days, nor did he see anyone during that period. And on the 41st midnight, he escaped in the disguise of a Maulavi and reached Germany under an Italian diplomatic passport with an Italian name of Orlando Mazzota. In Berlin, he formed the first Indian National Army (I.N.A.) with the 'prisoners of war' who were Indian soldiers serving the British Army. Now he came to be known as 'Netaji'. Subhas also founded an Indian Radio Station called Azad Hind Radio in Berlin, from where he had very often to broadcast for his countrymen suggesting about their political activities during the war. From Berlin, Subhas went to Japan, where the I. N. A. was enlarged with the addition of more soldiers and civil­ians. The I.N.A. was now a large army. Netaji, as the Chief Commander of the I.N.A., declared war against the British. The I.N.A. fought tooth and nail in the Burma front, and hoisted Indian national flag in Imphal at Manipur. The war took suddenly a strange turn, because the Japanese who were I.N.A.'s allied forces surrendered. So Netaji had to order retreat of his I.N.A. Netaji's senior army officials advised him to go to Russia for help. He started for Russia in a Japanese aircraft which unfortunately met with an accident at the time of taking off, and the great Indian leader Netaji died on the spot or 18 August, 1945.

Jan 27, 2014

thank you speech given my class+1 student in farewell:

Principal Sir, my loving teachers, and my fellow Tenacians: Words don’t come easy to me when it comes to speaking on an occasion like this. All throughout my school life, I’ve seen batches of students being bade farewell by the school and in all those times, I’ve feared the day when I’ll be among those stepping out of the doors of this institution for ever. Today, the time seems to have come for me too to make a transition from present to history. I don’t know if you realise how difficult it is for a student who has spent thirteen years of his life, in fact more than half his life thus far, in a school, to step out of it. Perhaps what makes it more difficult is the fact that you’re leaving behind the care and guidance of ever-respectful teachers, the love from friends — only to soon find everything shrunk to a handful of memories. An episode of my life is over, and perhaps the most important one, but the greatest happiness lies in the fact that it couldn’t have been more memorable. Today, as I’m here to bid you goodbye, I’d like to share a few of my experiences with you. I was in LKG and was told that I’d won a prize. Like we have now, we used to have rehearsals for prize giving. Mr Tashi Tenzing was the acting chief-guest. I was given a school diary. I thought it was the prize and started walking away with it. Mrs Damayanti Gatraj came running after me and took the diary away. On the actual day, the chief guest handed over the prize to me. I remembered the day of the rehearsal and handed the prize back to the surprised chief guest. I also have a confession to make. I was in Class VI or VII. It was the time when the Suggestion Box was newly introduced in our school. I used to speak in elocutions and debates and would find it very difficult to project my voice. I wished that we’d be provided microphones while speaking. One day, I wrote two suggestions in different handwritings requesting the introduction of mic’s. The next day, I tried to be expressionless as Mr Nadik approached me. He said, “Naresh, we’re going to have mic’s in elocutions this year. You know, two students have suggested that we have it.” One important aspect what was in my mind, but which perhaps I’ve not emphasised enough is the usage of English as a communicating medium. The primary reason was the guilt in my mind. Until and unless the senior-most Class XII students decide on speaking in English, there is no use in forcing the juniors. Ours being a public school, we should all understand the importance of English. I’m not just saying this because we’re so used to hearing it time and again, but because I realise how much it counts today when you step out into a world of your own. In the same vein, I’d like to recount an incident when we were in Class III. Mrs Beena Pradhan advised us to speak in English. She said that we shouldn’t feel embarrassed even if we made mistakes. Those were the times when I didn’t know the difference between sun and son, beating and cheating, and so on. But the words of Mrs Pradhan got into our heads and two of my friends and I started with khais-thing (ate), napis-thing (measured) and gais-thing (went), and soon found it easy enough conversing in English. There have been various other memorable moments. Years passed like a quick roll of drums, and soon we were in Class XII. I know we couldn’t bring about very many changes. Perhaps there wasn’t a need. But what greatly satisfies me is that we didn’t face any major problems, not even a single one. The students of TNA proved to me much more disciplined than what I was prepared to give them credit for. It indeed gives you a lot of happiness to see a fellow Tenacian greet you, “Good morning Captain” as he walks past you. When I was small, I used to hate the prefects for being harsh on me. As School Captain, this feeling was always there in my mind and that was the reason I never got myself to be harsh upon a little-one. This was a great help as I proved to be more approachable and got to know my Tenacians better. TNA has been more than just a school to me. In my life till now, my teachers have been everything for me. The amount they have done for me is not possibly quantifiable. TNA has given me a lot — care from teachers, love from friends and respect from juniors. This day, as I prepare to leave, I’d like to thank the Principal Sir, all my loving teachers, my fellow Twelvers and Tenacians for all your love and care. I also wish to thank the Prefects’ Body for all the co-operation they’ve given me. The only message I have for you is that if our batch has done something good — learn from us, and if we had our faults, discard them. Even if students must come and go, TNA and the Tenacian spirit must remain forever — shining and smiling in the hearts of all its members. Its hard to put into words all that I feel, but some day, I’m going to look back to these days, and feel ‘GREAT’!

Jan 23, 2014

Id-eas for making activity file:

Kindly please share which activity file you are talking about and what is the topic?

Jan 23, 2014

I want to made a working model related to maths. please help me:

Kindly elaborate what sort of working model you want to make?

Jan 23, 2014

project on reduse reuse and recycle:

The Three R's: Reduce, Reuse and Recycle Tips on reducing waste and conserving resources. The three R's - reduce, reuse and recycle - all help to cut down on the amount of waste we throw away. They conserve natural resources, landfill space and energy. Plus, the three R's save land and money communities must use to dispose of waste in landfills. Siting a new landfill has become difficult and more expensive due to environmental regulations and public opposition. Missouri has a goal of reducing the amount of waste going into landfills by 40 percent. Everyone can help meet this goal and save natural resources, energy, and money by following the three R's. REDUCE The best way to manage waste is to not produce it. This can be done by shopping carefully and being aware of a few guidelines: Buy products in bulk. Larger, economy-size products or ones in concentrated form use less packaging and usually cost less per ounce. Avoid over-packaged goods, especially ones packed with several materials such as foil, paper, and plastic. They are difficult to recycle, plus you pay more for the package. Avoid disposable goods, such as paper plates, cups, napkins, razors, and lighters. Throwaways contribute to the problem, and cost more because they must be replaced again and again. Buy durable goods - ones that are well-built or that carry good warranties. They will last longer, save money in the long run and save landfill space. At work, make two-sided copies when ever possible. Maintain central files rather than using several files for individuals. Use electronic mail or main bulletin board. Remove your name from the mailing lists of materials you no longer want to receive: write to Mail Preference Service, c/o Direct Marketing Assoc., P.O. Box 90008, Farmingdale, NY 11735. Use cloth napkins instead of paper napkins. Use a dish cloth instead of paper towels. REUSE It makes economic and environmental sense to reuse products. Sometimes it takes creativity: Reuse products for the same purpose. Save paper and plastic bags, and repair broken appliances, furniture and toys. Reuse products in different ways. Use a coffee can to pack a lunch; use plastic microwave dinner trays as picnic dishes. Sell old clothes, appliances, toys, and furniture in garage sales or ads, or donate them to charities. Use resealable containers rather than plastic wrap. Use a ceramic coffee mug instead of paper cups. Reuse grocery bags or bring your own cloth bags to the store. Do not take a bag from the store unless you need one. RECYCLE Recycling is a series of steps that takes a used material and processes, remanufactures, and sells it as a new product. Begin recycling at home and at work: Buy products made from recycled material. Look for the recycling symbol or ask store managers or salesmen. The recycling symbol means one of two things - either the product is made of recycled material, or the item can be recycled. For instance, many plastic containers have a recycling symbol with a numbered code the identifies what type of plastic resin it is made from. However, just because the container has this code does not mean it can be easily recycled locally. Check collection centers and curbside pickup services to see what they accept, and begin collecting those materials. These can include metal cans, newspapers, paper products, glass, plastics and oil. Consider purchasing recycled materials at work when purchasing material for office supply, office equipment or manufacturing. Speak to store managers and ask for products and packaging that help cut down on waste, such as recycled products and products that are not over packaged. Buy products made from material that is collected for recycling in your community. Use recycled paper for letterhead, copier paper and newsletters.

Jan 23, 2014

the ailing planet the birth the browning version:

The Ailing Planet: More than ever the planet earth is losing its vitality and freshness. Due to human development activities throughout the globe the earth has become highly polluted, highly irreparable and highly damaged. We have taken out petroleum, coal and a lot of natural resources from the earth. We have removed more than half of world's vegetation and emitted large quantity of carbon and a lot of other chemicals. We have destroyed marine life and made rivers dry. Moreover our greed for more and more wealth resulted in depleting the protective ozone layer and invited all harmful rays to the earth's surface. Besides, we have brought out a great imbalance between humans and the other species of the earth.​ Link for the video : http://youtu.be/mXF9I0L3mUk The Birth: Birth ‘Birth’ is an extract from ‘The Citadel’ by AJ Cronin which was published in 1937. To better understand ‘Birth,’ you may first understand The Citadel in a few words. The Citadel In October 1921, Andrew Manson, an idealistic, newly qualified doctor, arrives from Scotland to work as assistant to Doctor Page in the small Welsh mining town of Blaenelly. He quickly realizes that Page is an invalid and that he has to do all the work for a low wage. Shocked by the unsanitary conditions he finds, he works to improve matters and receives the support of Dr. Philip Denny, a cynical semi-alcoholic. Resigning, he obtains a post as assistant in a miners' medical aid scheme in 'Aberalaw', a neighboring coal mining town in the South Wales coalfield. On the strength of this job, he marries Christine Barlow, a junior school teacher. The story takes further steps and ends. Dr. Andrew Manson moves away from his strong medical ethics and is lured by money. He drifts away from his wife for a while. A patient at his Hospital dies and Manson is accused by the Medical Council. Manson returns to Christine but a few days later Christine is hit by a bus. Manson’s life wrecks and he takes time to recover from the wreckage. At the end, Dr. Andrew Manson opens a multi-specialty practice with a few medical friends and experts. We enter into the story at that point when Dr. Andrew Manson was new in Blaenelly, before his marrying Christine. Summary It is the birth of two - the birth of a child and the birth of a wonderful physician who brought the stillborn baby to life. Dr. Andrew Manson was recently out of the medical college and he was a struggling practitioner. One night he returned late and waiting for him was a man - Joe Morgan - the most stressed out man in the world at that time. His wife Suzane was about to give birth to a baby tonight, after their 14 years wait. Though tired to death, Dr. Andrew Manson agreed to attend the case but in spite of prayers and attempts, the baby was lifeless when it was born! The Browning Version: Introduction This play highlights the attitude of a teenaged student towards his teacher. His comments are shocking because they are very close to reality. He imitates the voice of Mr. Crocker-Harris. He calls the man almost inhuman. He is mortally afraid of his teacher. His promotion depends on the whim or goodwill of his teacher. But he opens up when the other science teacher encourages him to do so. He hates the Greek play because he does not like the teacher’s method of teaching. Mr. Crocker Harris seems to hate people in order to make them like him. The description of the teacher is damaging. It reflects upon the hopeless quality of teachers. Summary John Taplow, who is about sixteen years old and in the lower fifth form of an English public school, appears at the flat of Andrew Crocker-Harris for an end-of-term tutorial in the hope of being advanced to the upper fifth. Seeing a box of chocolates, he helps himself to two pieces, eats one, and then, either out of conscience or fear of being caught, replaces the other. Shortly thereafter, Frank Hunter arrives, and in the course of the conversation between the two it becomes clear that Crocker-Harris is retiring because of ill health. Known for his strict discipline, students dub him the “Crock” and “Himmler of the lower fifth.” Hunter, on the other hand, enjoys easy rapport with students, as can be seen in Taplow’s readiness to share confidences with him. While they wait for the “Crock” to appear, Hunter instructs Taplow in a proper golf swing. Taplow admits that, although like most students he had his share of fun at Crocker-Harris’s expense, he does have sympathy for him. Taplow is in the midst of mimicking the master when Millie Crocker-Harris enters and overhears the mimicry. She dispatches Taplow on an errand to the druggist for Crocker-Harris’s heart medicine so that she can be alone with Hunter, with whom she is having an affair. Crocker-Harris appears, only to find that Taplow is not there. When Taplow returns, Millie leaves to prepare dinner, and Hunter leaves pupil and master to their work on.

Jan 23, 2014

tell me the link for +1 english chpters of hornbill n snapshots in form of videos:

Kindly please share with us the chapter in which you are facing difficulty pertinent to Hornbill.

Jan 23, 2014

plzzz answer my question ???? where would i will get my answers:

Sorry the delay was due to server problem.

Jan 22, 2014

pollution and its harmful effects??? plzzz reply me soon on my question.:

Pollution produces physical and biological effectsthat vary from mildly irritating to lethal. The moreserious of the two are the biological effects.Physical EffectsThe physical effects of pollution are those that wecan see, but they include effects other than actualphysical damage.Oil spills. One obvious physical effect of pollutionis the result of oil spills that are caused by ship collisionsor other accidents. Oil spilled into the seas coatseverything it touches. It fouls boat hulls, pier pilings,and shore structures; spoils the beauty of nature bykilling fish and birds; and makes beaches unusable. Inaddition to the physical effects, oil spills require costlycleanup operations.Air pollutants. Air pollutants damage a wide varietyof materials. Burning oil and coal produce sulfuroxides, which cause steel to erode two to four timesfaster than normal. When combined with otherpollutants (soot, smoke, lead, asbestos, and so on),sulfur oxide particulates cause corrosion to occur at aneven faster rate. By themselves, particulates damageand soil materials, structures, and equipment. Airpollutants speed the erosion of statues and buildings,which in some instances, destroys works of art.Biological EffectsThe most serious result of pollution is its harmfulbiological effects on human health and on the foodchain of animals, birds, and marine life. Pollution candestroy vegetation that provides food and shelter. It canseriously disrupt the balance of nature, and, in extremecases, can cause the death of humans.Pesticides, which include herbicides andinsecticides, can damage crops; kill vegetation; andpoison birds, animals, and fish. Most pesticides arenonselective; they kill or damage life forms other than those intended. For example, pesticides used in an effortto control or destroy undesirable vegetation and insectsoften destroy birds and small animals. Some life formsdevelop immunity to pesticides used to destroy them.When that happens, we develop more potent chemicalsand the cycle repeats itself.The widespread use of pollutants, such as oil,chemicals, and fertilizers, pollutes our waterways. The biological effect of water pollution is its danger to our water supplies; we require water to survive. Water pollutants are also dangerous to all forms of marine life. Oil is an especially harmful pollutant. It kills surface-swimming animals and sea birds and, once it settles on the bottom, harms shellfish and other types of marine life. The primary pollution concern of Navy personnel involves pollution produced by shipboard wastes. In addition to oil, shipboard wastes include sanitary wastes, galley and laundry waters, chemicals, solid wastes, and combustion by-products of oil- and gasoline-driven engines. Pollutants produced by ships are similar to those generated by municipal and industrial operations. NAVY PROGRAMS FOR POLLUTION CONTROL Based on an Executive Order, all government agencies must provide leadership in the protection and enhancement of the quality of our air and water resources. They also must comply with all environmental laws and regulations. Accordingly, the Secretary of the Navy, the Chief of Naval Operations, and other authorities have issued several pollution control instructions. Those instructions cover the abatement (lowering) of air, water, and noise pollution. In addition, we have a program to preserve our natural, cultural, and historic resources. Clean Air Act Under the Clean Air Act, each state has the primary responsibility for assuring air quality. All naval activities must meet both federal and state standards for preventing air pollution. The Navy has begun taking steps to help meet the nation’s goal of reducing air pollution. One step has spill it during refueling operations or as a result ofcollision or grounding. Several million gallons of oil may ruin and pollute miles of coastline as a result of such accidents.

Jan 22, 2014

my topic is "tolerance lies at thr root of most conflicts in the world today , be it at a local or a global level." discuss religious intolerance , racial discrimintaion,rich poor divide etc plzzz give me something on dis.:

Tolerance in day-to-day life:Intolerance lies at the root of most conflicts in the world today, be it at a local or a global level. At its simplest level, religious tolerance is about allowing others to hold beliefs that run contrary to one's own beliefs. It does not require that opposing beliefs be facilitated, supported, or not contradicted - but it does require that competing beliefs be allowed to exist. Some would dissent from this definition, claiming that religious beliefs should not be criticized, yet this position is untenable and an example of empty-headed political correctness. The mere existence of competing belief-systems is in itself criticism. For example, it's difficult to read the Bible without coming away with the impression that Hindu and Muslim beliefs are utterly wrong, and certainly the basic premise of Islam condemns the heretical Christian claim that Jesus was the son of God. Racial Discrimination occurs when an individual from one race views another as other races. Racism has existed during the 19th century and is still present in the 21st century but not as cruel as it was back then. Some racist ideologies have been widely discredited after World War Two and the Holocaust but the phenomena of racism and of racial discrimination have remained widespread all over the world. . Knowing the fact that racial discrimination has occurred at many multi-cultured society, my hypothesis is that there have been and still is some racial discrimination happening in our society. I think that racial discrimination has been such a big part of people's present life and history that in our future we will still be discriminated against our race at some point in our on going life. Many racial and ethnic groups in the United States, including blacks, Hispanics, Asians, American Indians, and others, have historically faced severe discrimination—pervasive and open denial of civil, social, political, educational, and economic opportunities. The history of racial discrimination in America shows that when it comes to race relations between African Americans and white people, many African Americans have been discriminated against. A survey in a 2003 Ipsos-Reid confirmed that 74% of respondents still encountered racism in Canada. Other research shows that 36% of visible minorities feel they have experienced discrimination and unfair treatment because of their ethno-cultural characteristics. 50% of Blacks and 33% of Asians and Chinese respondents had encountered racial discrimination. 59% of Aboriginal peoples felt that they were discriminated against by other Canadians. A survey in Statistics Canada shows that members of visible minorities have lower incomes than the non-minority population. Economic inequality (also described as the gap between rich and poor, income inequality, wealth disparity, or wealth and income differences) is the difference between individuals or populations in the distribution of their assets, wealth, or income. The term typically refers to inequality among individuals and groups within a society, but can also refer to inequality among countries. The issue of economic inequality involves equity, equality of outcome, equality of opportunity, and life expectancy. Opinions differ on the utility of inequality and its effects. Some studies have emphasized inequality as a growing social problem. While some inequality promotes investment, too much inequality is destructive. Income inequality can hinder long term growth. Statistical studies comparing inequality to year-over-year economic growth have been inconclusive; however in 2011, researchers from the International Monetary Fund published work which indicated that income equality increased the duration of countries' economic growth spells more than free trade, low government corruption, foreign investment, or low foreign debt. Economic inequality varies between societies, historical periods, economic structures and systems (for example, capitalism or socialism), and between individuals' abilities to create wealth. The term can refer to cross sectional descriptions of the income or wealth at any particular period, and to the lifetime income and wealth over longer periods of time. There are various numerical indices for measuring economic inequality. A prominent one is the Gini coefficient, but there are also many other methods.

Jan 22, 2014

hey!!! my question is a type of situation ii need to fnd out its solution. "your parents are away and u being the elder among your sibling need to loff after the house n family your younger brother came late from his tennis tournimant n yu scolded hm wdout listening to his explanation. later on u find that he had saced someone in a roadside accident whlw coming back home. what will ur reaction? what will u do in similar situation?:

If the word mentioned in the question "saced" is "saved" then being the eldest one will console the younger.

Jan 22, 2014

hey hlo.. everyone!! my topic is "conflict is not synonymous with anger or violence but tolerance." can i get aa type of discussion on it plzzz.:

Anger is very often confused with conflict or violence but they are not synonymous. Anger dosn't mean violence it is just anger. Violence is anger out of control.

Jan 22, 2014

characteristics of effective teams:brainstorm at least 8 characteristics that make teamwork effective.:

1. There is a clear unity of purpose. There was free discussion of the objectives until members could commit themselves to them; the objectives are meaningful to each group member. 2. The group is self-conscious about its own operations. The group has taken time to explicitly discuss group process -- how the group will function to achieve its objectives. The group has a clear, explicit, and mutually agreed-upon approach: mechanics, norms, expectations, rules, etc. Frequently, it will stop to examined how well it is doing or what may be interfering with its operation. Whatever the problem may be, it gets open discussion and a solution found. 3. The group has set clear and demanding performance goals for itself and has translated these performance goals into well-defined concrete milestones against which it measures itself. The group defines and achieves a continuous series of "small wins" along the way to larger goals. 4. The atmosphere tends to be informal, comfortable, relaxed. There are no obvious tensions, a working atmosphere in which people are involved and interested. 5. There is a lot of discussion in which virtually everyone participates, but it remains pertinent to the purpose of the group. If discussion gets off track, someone will bring it back in short order. The members listen to each other. Every idea is given a hearing. People are not afraid of being foolish by putting forth a creative thought even if it seems extreme. 6. People are free in expressing their feelings as well as their ideas. 7. There is disagreement and this is viewed as good. Disagreements are not suppressed or overridden by premature group action. The reasons are carefully examined, and the group seeks to resolve them rather than dominate the dissenter. Dissenters are not trying to dominate the group; they have a genuine difference of opinion. If there are basic disagreements that cannot be resolved, the group figures out a way to live with them without letting them block its efforts. 8. Most decisions are made at a point where there is general agreement. However, those who disagree with the general agreement of the group do not keep their opposition private and let an apparent consensus mask their disagreement. The group does not accept a simple majority as a proper basis for action. 9. Each individual carries his or her own weight, meeting or exceeding the expectations of other group members. Each individual is respectful of the mechanics of the group: arriving on time, coming to meetings prepared, completing agreed upon tasks on time, etc. When action is taken, clears assignments are made (who-what-when) and willingly accepted and completed by each group member. 10. Criticism is frequent, frank and relatively comfortable. The criticism has a constructive flavor -- oriented toward removing an obstacle that faces the group. 11. The leadership of the group shifts from time to time. The issue is not who controls, but how to get the job done.

Jan 22, 2014

you are in a supermarket with ur frnds and find ur frien shop lifting. a.what wl be ur reactn?? b.will u allow peer pressure to resrain you from callng authorities.? plzz hlp me out in dis.:

Being an honest person i will definitely call the concerned authority.

Jan 22, 2014

ii have to submit an activity in school if u can hlp me.the topic 4dat is "cortuption is the norm and therefore should be accepted." suggest ameans to combat corruption.:

For the last 37 years of nationhood, we have been letting corruption to grow systematic and systemic – making our lives difficult, limiting our opportunities, making our systems malfunction, setting back our progresses, creating loopholes for our systems to be manipulated, distorting of our democratic values, depriving and denying us of our basic human rights and trapping millions of our citizens in poverty. We have forsaken our country and its future by confessing and accepting corruption as a norm, part of our history, cultures, and traditions. We have regarded it is as part of our way of life, for instance “Big Man” are not punishable even when they commit serious crimes. We regarded “wantok system” or nepotism as helping one another or returning a favor. Bribery has been regarded as normal and is considered as a gift to facilitate requests in a speedy or timely manner. Unfortunately, our traditional norms have presided over western norms. We are a nation at confusion and lost between two extreme worlds – one inherited from our ancestors and one inherited from colonial masters during independence. At this juncture, I would like to propose this question – do we accept corruption as a norm or is there a way forward for the country after 37 years of corruption? In this article I attempt to answer the above question in three parts. The first part, I write about corruption as I see it. The second part I write about corruption as the rest of Papua New Guineans see it according to my 12 years of judgment. In the third or final part, I write about the way forward for the country as according to the way I see it. CORRUPTION AS I SEE – A UGLY MONSTER When I first begin to understand the corruption problem in the country 12 years ago in 2001, I want to find out how it affects my life and my country. As I searched deeply into the problem of corruption I came face to face with a young, ugly, and black monster yet appeared friendly. The monster was appeared to be looking healthy, well fed and looked after. From its appearance I could guess it was 37 years of age. The monster starred at me with its big and red eyes through which I could be able to see all its internal organs. I saw the intestines and what it has been feeding on. I could see human bones – the bones of the mothers died of breast cancer, the bones of children died of malnutrition, the bones of tribal warriors died in tribal fights and the bones of those who died as the direct result of lack of basic government services. As a searched further deep into all its internal parts and organs I noticed some of the ugliest sights decorated with sign boards of different shapes and sizes I had never imagine exist in our real world today. The writings on the signboards read, “I will deny and deprive you of the opportunities to education, employment, health care, transport and basic government services”. The sight of what I saw really frightened the hell out of me – drained and exhausted all my energy. I sat motionless, my heart pounding, eyes filled with tears of bitter sadness – all I could managed to say was “God, why are you letting this to happen for so long in a country where its people considered to be your own people or Christians?” As I come to face to face with this deeply rooted monster, I see my future slowing evaporating before its eyes. Corruption as it appears to me is a sinister monster with thousands of mouths that we have been feeding and looking after for the last 37 years of nationhood. We have tamed it to be our family member, best friend, relative, wantok and countrymen. We have let it grow its roots among family, cultural, social, political and economical settings. In the dark when no one notices it, it has slowly been creeping and knocking at the doorsteps of every Papua New Guineans, feeding on our greed and selfishness to escalate the deteriorating of our integral and moral human values. As a result, we have been in the race to be the conquerors of Mt. Everest before others, we want to reach the North and the South Poles to rewrite history, we want our initials curved on some deep sea monsters, we want to fly our flags on the moon, and we want to travel to Jupiter before the NASA scientists. Yes we have mustered the art for the destruction of our own country and future and we are already addicted to it – we are on an endless mission. Corruption as I described above is a monster to me. But what about the rest of Papua New Guineans think? Read on to find out what I think is their perceptions about corruption in the country. CORRUPTION AS THE REST OF PAPUA NEW GUINEA SEE IT – A NORM Unfortunately, the rest of Papua New Guineans have allowed corruption as a norm, originated from our cultures and traditions. For instance, a “big man” in a typical PNG culture is not punishable by the laws. The big man culture is well versed in PNG politics where politics have been misconceived as a means to personal wealth creation. Politicians or PNG big men begin their political careers as ordinary persons, or civil servants, and graduate as business entrepreneurs after their discontinuation from office. A browse through the political chronicles of PNG will reveal this interesting trend. In fact, most medium scale business activities in PNG are owned or partly owned by politicians and ex-politicians. The emergence of politicians-turned-businessmen or vice versa after 1975, and the difficulties in separating business from politics, had sent out false signals to aspirants to political office. Contesting elections today has become a god sent opportunity to wealth accumulation. Cases of diverting public monies into personal accounts or into those of the politician’s business associates are reported everyday in the daily newspapers. An example of how politicians or PNG’s “big men” divert and steal public funds – when government funds (millions of Kina) are released for projects, politicians often pretend to open trust accounts to be managed by government department secretaries. While the money is in the trust accounts, a network of signatories to the money is established to draw out the money. When this is done and in order, third parties (often their cronies) are consulted and asked to submit project proposals or register ghost companies with bogus claims so that payments can be made to them. Eventually the money is transferred and shared between the key players. The key players of this political mafia gang type network include some of our politicians; government CEOs, secretaries, directors; and their financial controllers. They establish networks with bankers, accountants, lawyers or other specialists to help them generate, move or store their illicit income. The transaction is often enabled by professionals from many fields. With the network strongly established, creating an atmosphere of mutual trust and reciprocity; they attempt to provide a legal appearance to corrupt transactions, producing legally enforceable signatories; and they help to ensure that no one is blamed in case of detection. Tribalism in the Highlands and other parts of the has also been promoting the “big man” culture. In the Highlands, where tribalism is common, there is a stiff competition between rival tribes in the numbers game of “big man”. The tribe that boasts more big men is a powerful tribe. As a result the tribal big men in the highlands are as powerful as little gods. When the tribal “big man” commands his tribes, they respond with “yes boss”. All tribal members stand ready to defend their tribal big man even when he is guilty. To promote more members of the tribe to big-man status, the big man usually a politician from the tribe requests tribal members to register ghost companies and submit ghost project proposals. He then diverts all or part of the District Development and Improvement grants or other project funds to the companies where the money is stolen – sometimes there is little work done or most of the times the quality of work done is very poor. The transactions are often aided by government officials and bureaucrats. This practice is widespread and is common in PNG were District Development and Improvement grants or other project funds have been diverted, misused and stolen. Coupled with the PNG “big man” culture, greed, selfishness and individualism has allowed corruption to be integrated into part of our culture escalating the deteriorating of our integral and moral human values. The selfishness and greed of wanting more has led to people stealing from the State wealth through ghost project proposals or by other means such as registering ghost companies where public funds can be diverted to, often aided by corrupt politicians and bureaucrats who benefit from the scheme. As a result we have developed a culture of only caring for ourselves. We don’t care about the consequences of our actions or decisions in the lives of others. We simply tend to think that what happens to others is “none of our business”. Sadly, this is not a reflection of our Christian values and believes, which we always claim as in a Christian country. The desire for the destruction of our country and future in the pretext of accepting corruption as a norm for the last 37 years of independence has led to the emergence of a complicated attitude problem. As a result it has become part of our upbringing and has been slowly fueling corruption. We have invented shields of ignorance and pretended that there is nothing happening at our doorsteps or that of our neighbors. We defend ourselves when we are criticized, exposed or investigated for corrupt practices. We always try to play the game of not guilty, knowing well that we will eventually come out clean by manipulating a corrupted and often flawed judicial system. We take refuge as Christians in a Christian Country; pray, attend church services, take the Bread of Life and preach the gospel to be trusted and accepted. We take temporarily relief by blaming others for own problems, taking advantage of a very large illiterate population. We have accepted corruption as a norm but did we admit it as a problem. In the following I will discuss some of the confessions by our former and current politicians and citizens who admitted corruption is a problem, as reported in our two daily news papers. CORRUPTION IS A NORM BUT DID WE ADMIT IT? Our inability to address corruption, confusing ourselves between the two extremes (cultures) – one inherited from our ancestors and one inherited from our colonial masters have allowed corruption to flourish in the social, economical and political settings unattended for the last 37 years of independence. But did we admit we have a problem? In the following, I discussed some of the confessions by our former and current politicians and citizens who admitted corruption is a problem, as reported in our two daily news papers. When tried to shake off a shaky coalition government surrounded by scandals of the Sandline and economic crisis in 1997, the former Prime Minister late Sir William Bill Skate in a press release, attacked Sir Julius Chan (also a former Prime Minister) as ‘ultimately responsible’ for his Ministers’ conduct during the Sandline crisis. He said ‘our great nation of Papua New Guinea has been plundered and pillaged by a scattering of politicians and corrupt leaders and we want this sad chapter to be closed.’ He then called for an Independent Commission Against Corruption (ICAC), saying ‘if you have nothing to hide you have nothing to fear’. Soon after, Mr Skate expelled Chan’s PPP from the Government. It’s sad especially when a head of a country confessed corruption is an issue yet let unaddressed to grow from bad to worse over the years. Sir Mekere Mourata when he was PNG’s Prime Minister in 1999 once described corruption in Papua New Guinea as Systematic and Systemic. Systematic because it is well planned, organized and cleverly executed to steal large sums of public funds (money) avoiding being detected and caught. Systemic because the current systems in place or the lack of strict checks and balances facilitates or is conducive for corrupt practices to flourish in the public sector for the last 37 years. Is Sir Mekere Mourata not responsible for failing to promptly investigate into the fatal shooting in June 2001 of Steven Kil, Peter Noki, Thomas Moruwo and Matthew Paven during a police operation against anti-government protesters at UPNG? Former MP for Lae Open and then Deputy Opposition leader Bart Philemon in 2007 claimed the PNG’s politicians as ‘Dirty money MPs’. He claimed that Papua New Guinean politicians were walking on a “minefield” of “dirty money” from unscrupulous people with money, who were hell-bent on influencing political outcomes for their vested interests. The claim was made at the 7th annual Ethics Symposium of the Divine Word University’s Faculty of Business and Management in Madang. Mr Philemon said the country faced the real danger of seeing its Members of Parliament bought out by those with “big pockets (of money)” to get political favours for their vested interests. “How can we ensure our politicians survive this minefield?” Mr Philemon asked. In direct reference to the 2007 election where he observed large sums of money allegedly used by vested interests, Mr Philemon claimed some of the winning candidates demanded their election expenses be refunded if they were to join certain political groups in the lead-up to the formation of the new government last month. Such claims by MPs are common when in the Opposition but when in the Government it is a rare scenario. The former National Planning Minister, Paul Tiensten in 2008 claimed that there was a “10 per cent” syndicate operating out of the Vulupindi Haus, the headquarters of the departments of Finance, Treasury and National Planning. The Minister made this revelation when announcing the National Executive Council’s decision to replace department secretary Valentine Kambori with Joseph Lelang. Mr Tiensten said: “This building houses a syndicate … everybody is getting a 10 per cent cut to approve a cheque.” He said National Planning will start cleaning the department and the rollover effect will help clean the other two departments as they work together. Is Mr. Tiensten a credible and reputable person to raise such allegations? From what I know he is yet to tell the people of Papua New Guinea about the disappearance and whereabouts of billions of kina he managed under the National Planning department. HR Holdings Limited managing director and former chairman of the PNG Manufacturer’s Council Sir Ramon Thurecht in March 2008 made a similar claim of a 30 per cent syndicate involving bureaucrats and politicians begging businesses for money before work can be done. But, he said the businesses could not speak out because of fear the bureaucrats and politicians would retaliate. He said “our biggest challenge now is to work with the Government”. “Corruption in PNG will reach a dangerous trend if leaders and publics servants implicated are not prosecuted”, prominent lawyer Dr John Nonggorr said in September 2007 when commenting on PNG’s ranking in the Transparency International Corruption Index , which fell by 13 places. Dr Nonggorr said the implications of widespread corruption domestically must not be underestimated. He said it had serious consequences for governments, governance and the continued functioning of a State. Dr Nonggorr said that with basic public services such as schools, hospitals, roads and bridges in a deplorable state throughout the country, the inability of the State to protect public property by preventing corruption, would lead to the loss of respect for the State, its institutions and authority generally. “This would give rise to public disobedience, which may demonstrate itself in public disorder including violence. The rest of Papua New Guinea has joined the bandwagon; as I have observed a lot of anti-corruption websites or blogs starting to emerge. Papua New Guineans are now in large growing numbers using the social media to their advantage by writing and posting about our country’s worst night mare, corruption epidemic. Also, the editorial or viewpoints columns of our local news papers contain a significant number of letters or views of Papua New Guineans writing everyday about our friend, relative, and wantok – corruption. Papua New Guineans are now starting to wake up from their long sleep to face their tamed monster – describing it as a faceless evil or something worse, whatever they can think, name or describe it. CORRUPTION A NORM: HOW MUCH HAVE WE BENEFITED? We have accepted corruption as a norm yet we have admitted it is a problem yet we let it to flourish unattended for the last 37 years of independence. That means everyone in this country must have benefited from it and are better off than other countries. But how much have we benefited? I am from the highlands where the PNG’s “big men” culture strongly exists. To me I don’t easily accept the fact that these big men or chiefs have been subjecting the future of our beautiful country to ransom. I find it extremely impossible to understand why Papua New Guineans have been tolerating the big men culture letting them getting away unpunished while we have been suffering in a rich country. Because I don’t drink from the same cup or eat from the same plate with politicians. I don’t share a same wife and children with them. They don’t provide the daily needs of my family. I struggle everyday to provide something on the table for my family from my own hard work and sweat. The fortnight salary I get is simply not enough to rent a house in the city. It cannot even last two weeks. Having three meals a day is still a luxury and a dream. I see our politicians with bitter sadness and pain. When I see them, I reflect on the many years of suffering I have been enduring in a rich country. I have been blaming them for making our lives difficult, limiting our opportunities, making our systems malfunction, setting back our progresses, creating loopholes for our systems to be manipulated, distorting of our democratic values, depriving and denying us of our basic human rights and trapping millions of our citizens in poverty. As a result of corruption, the government of Papua New Guinea has neglected our infrastructure – our lifeline to deteriorate over the years, often blaming the public servants for not implementing government policies. The daily local newspapers continue to reveal the breakdown of law and order with escalating in violent crimes that often scares foreign investors and tourists away and out of the country. Papua New Guinea is regarded as one of the high risk countries in the world to do business or to visit. In cities and towns, squatter settlements are quickly developing, becoming a breeding grounds for street ‘mangis’ (boys) who eventually found themselves on the streets searching for opportunities to survive – they simply don’t care if taking another person’s life is a crime or a crime commit to survive. Far worse, there is total no control over the influx of illegal Asian immigrants into the country, taking away business and employment opportunities from the locals. Worse still, there is a stiff rise in the smuggling of cheap low-quality counterfeit goods by Asians into the country, invading government tax systems and feeding our people with rubbish and rob our off our hard earned Kina. The number of illegal businesses (brothels, pornographic movies and gambling) conducted by Asians has dramatically increased over the years, undermining the rule of the law. These are painful, deep problems that quick fixes will not solve them. But we cannot let it unaddressed only to haunt our future or that of our children’s or their children. There should be a way out and I will discuss this bellow in the final session of my discussion.

Jan 22, 2014

What is an invention? What are its advantages? Is it a curse or blessing?:

Invention is the action of inventing something, typically a process or device. The invention and use of machines has several advantages. It reduces the time needed to complete a task, it allows the task to be completed by fewer people, and it allows more of the product to get to market faster. It also frees up humans to use brain power to come up with new inventions to drive the economy. It is science that has provided modern man a life of ease,leisure and pleasure.It has brought within the reach of common man comforts and luxuries that were available in the past only to the privileged few. Science has invented marvellous machines and discovered emergencies that run these these to take the drudgery out of man's work.By doing much of his work and doing it fast,machines have provided man with a lot of leisure.The rosy dream of an easy and luxurious life has come true for him.Distance has been conquered.Modern means of transport and communication have made world a global village.Men and things and news and views can go around the globe today with lightning speed.Internet has brought people of world together and brought about a revolution in the fields of communication and information.Man has already landed on moon and man made satellites have made voyages through the solar system. Science has invented marvellous machines and discovered emergencies that run these these to take the drudgery out of man's work.By doing much of his work and doing it fast,machines have provided man with a lot of leisure.The rosy dream of an easy and luxurious life has come true for him.Distance has been conquered.Modern means of transport and communication have made world a global village.Men and things and news and views can go around the globe today with lightning speed.Internet has brought people of world together and brought about a revolution in the fields of communication and information.Man has already landed on moon and man made satellites have made voyages through the solar system. Our life has become healthier and longer.Modern hygiene,sanitation,medicine and surgery are conquering more and more physical mental illness with each passing day.We now know know and experience the joys of good health and longevity.Through the cinema,the radio,the tape recorder,the TV and the video,science has worked wonders in the fields of education and entertainment. Though we welcome the blessings of science,we have to consider the other side of picture also.Man has not been able to face the problems created by inventions of science and to stop the misuse or harmful consequences of scientific inventions.Factories have polluted the water and the atmosphere.They have caused noise pollution.Industrialisation have, by reducing explosion and consequent miseries. Again, science has put in our hands terrible weapons such as the nuclear bombs, the guided missiles and the means of chemical and biological warfare. We are in danger of destroying ourselves with these monstrous means that,ironically,are our own creations.Rightly used, science can bring heaven on earth.Wrongly used, it can turn this earth into hell.

Jan 22, 2014

According to me knowledge matters more but some think its attitude who matters more..? Can u tell me plz which matters more?:

Knowledge is indeed powerful and Intelligence rules the world of knowledge. Both of them are out of one's experience & efforts, being put across in life. But, Change is something which is bound to happen in any field & part of life or situations. There, in such situations, Attitude is something that is going to make a big difference among the crowd of intellectuals. Most of us are concerned about what we are today. Some may be in emotional situations, due to failure in career or life. Some may be in jubilant mood because of success & knowledge at present. But, all that matters in the long run is nothing rather than the word "ATTITUDE". The Knowledge we are talking about here is about the one which has a value in the market where, one can get the fruit out of it. An individual may possess a lot of knowledge - may be having a good academic record, may know many difficult subjects or topics of career or life. But, everything is not valuable. Only a few out of them is what make the individual recognised & understood by the people. The rest of knowledge is indeed great but has no value. But, it is feasible to utilise the fruit of those via references to them at times & creating a solid mental & physical background to trigger one's passion. So, the credit lies on the ability of any individual to find out what is the good strength on self that others don't have; i.e. the field of life or career or job or idea where one can be a pioneer or a admirer of all, instead of putting effort & pressure on self to excel on something where one lacks in knowledge & quality. There are two things about the knowledge - one "the knowledge on which an individual is working on for living & self image", the other "the knowledge on which an individual banks on to trigger one's passion & motivation". It is really not an easy task to find out what is best suited for an individual to carry forward as a career in life. But, it is all about trying things newly with innovation & passion, till one is sure about the satisfaction where one has to be in life about the choice of career. Our current knowledge is also time-bound. It may get outdated sometime or latter. So, the will to learn, the eagerness to know, the adventurous feeling to explore new things, all such Attitudes are the key to Success & Stability in one's career and life. Nothing remains the same. There have been many great people in various fields of life & career. But, all has to go someday. One has both Ups & Downs. So, the point is striking the right target at the right time and thus gaining success for those periods where one can sustain still via new innovations & positive attitudes. This means that it is a part of one's life to have both the prime time & worse time. But, whatever the situation is, one who has the right & positive attitude always satisfies self & also gains respect of others. Living, studying, working & so on…just for the sake of doing so, isn't worth at all. It will be wonderful if one is able to put colours & passions at times. Success is not just about getting the medal; it is also about the personal satisfaction & the ability to express one's innovation which is well appreciated by others. In today's world of steep competition in any way of life & career, it is the best to find the strength where one has strong hold and capitalise the knowledge on those areas to gain the fruit of hard-work. It is said right - "Where there is a will, there is a way". Education via schools, colleges, universities are all about gathering knowledge to make an individual know self so as to plan according what one has to do in life. Studying for the sake of studying and becoming unemployed latter is not a good option. We do know what we are studying and hence, the onus lies on the individual to think what one has to do beforehand. A society comprises of many facets of characters - Doctors, Engineers, Lawyers, Businessmen, workers, peasants, and many more. None is superior to the other in reality. Everyone contributes and thus we all are able to live together with peace & prosperity. It is about understanding the "Dignity of Labour". So, here comes the word "ATTITUDE". A Good & Positive Attitude changes one's past and sets the future for success & satisfaction. A little knowledge is Dangerous; but, rather "Too much knowledge is also Disastrous". There is always a limit in knowing & learning things. Curiosity & creativity are indeed the stepping stones for innovation & success in life. But, one has to be sure what is what & where it is leading to. We have God's most precious gift "our Mind". Everything is possible if not this way, but some other way, if not this time, but next time. So, what matters more in life is ATTITUDE… rather than Skill & Intelligence.

Jan 22, 2014

article on security threat to tourism in India:

It was exactly a year ago the gateway of India - Mumbai was under the siege of terrorists. 26/11 in 2008 is a day of horror in the minds of Mumbaites. The World saw the terrorists’ activities and the commando operations live on many channels. The burning picture of Taj Hotel symbolizes the terror unleashed in the Mumbai coast. The 60 hr long battle saw the terrorists galloping at-last and equally with great sacrifices of Indian warriors. More than 160 people lost their lives and few hundreds were injured. Mumbai Terror Attacks On this day, the great Indian symbols were attacked. Gateway of India, Taj Mahal Palace, Oberoi Hotel and Nariman House were some of the important monuments attacked by the terror networks. It was not the first time these patriotic monuments were aimed by miscreants. The terrorist bomb attack on August 25, 2003 near the Gateway of India killed nearly 50 people and left hundreds injured. The monuments were damaged, the lives of many were shattered and many establishments were under threat. 26/11 affected the life of common man all over the country, especially in major urban cities like Delhi, Bangalore, Kolkata and Chennai apart from Mumbai. All ways of life were affected. Travel and tourism was also not an exception. It was a major casualty. 26/11 in 2008 had happened just at the beginning of the India’s best tourist season in the decade. It was expected to cross the great landmark of 5 million foreign travelers in the year. 26/11 became the bottleneck for the miraculous growing of tourism industry in India. In fact the tourism sector was not sound enough to absorb such an impact as it was already affected by the economic meltdown. Inflow of foreign travelers was reduced and local tourists avoided big cities. Mumbai especially saw the significant reduction in the number of tourists in the first three months after 26/11. The major casualty is the tourism ministry’s projection of 10 million tourists by 2010. It is perceived that the target would be difficult to achieve! However, the concentrated efforts of industry and the Government are now bringing fruits. They could mobilize voices of many world-wide agencies like National Geographic to endorse and assure safe tourism in India for the traveling community and promoted India as a must see destination. Thanks to the confidence building measures and the great support by the Government machinery, Indian tourism regained its lost glory by mid of 2009. Terror Tourism! At the other end, Mumbai has seen the arrival of a new set of tourists. Travelers flock to this place to view the monuments like Taj hotel, Gateway of India, Cama hospital and Nariman house, which were under terror attacks. Local tourists and foreign travelers' inflows to Mumbai have been on increase on account of this new found ‘terror tourism’. Bullet marks on walls, windows and roofs, damaged regions and reinstated structures are all very inviting for the tourists visiting here. Tourist guides and agencies give elaborate descriptions on the events and showing various places under the siege. You can get details of the past terror and bomb attacks at this place from these guides. The surge of travel and tourism industry in the country in 2009 is a pointer towards the great confidence the traveling populaces and vacation tourists in safe Indian Destinations. Statistics points to the fact that there was a dwindling of about 8% in the number of foreign tourists to India in 2009 comparing with the corresponding numbers in 2008. This 8% is pretty small considering the real facts about the economic recession and the fear spread due to the H1N1 flu. It just tells that the terror attacks or security threats has not much affected the tourism industry in India. It is predicted that Mumbai is going to witness a surge in tourists as the economy regains and the business travels increase. You can go anywhere in India. You can be assured of extra secure tourist activities in the picturesque, inviting and breathtaking Indian hot spots.

Jan 13, 2014

article on secular society a healthy society:

The National Secular Society is a British campaigning organisation that promotes secularism and the separation of church and state. It holds that no-one should gain advantage or disadvantage because of their religion or lack of religion. It was founded by Charles Bradlaugh in 1866. The society is a member organisation of the International Humanist and Ethical Union, and endorses the Amsterdam Declaration 2002. The Society campaigns for "Challenging Religious Privilege" the disestablishment of the Church of England; the withdrawal of state subsidies to religious schools; the end of tax exemption for churches and an end to the public funding of chaplains in prisons, hospitals and the armed services, as well as keeping religious influence out of health care, legislation, Human Rights and equality issues. It was recently highly involved in the abolition of the blasphemy laws. Another issue it campaigns about is the conscientious objections by doctors and pharmacists to administer certain procedures or treatments and their refusal to treat certain patients. Although the organisation was explicitly created for those who reject the supernatural, the NSS does not campaign to eradicate or prohibit religion, arguing that freedom of religion, as well as freedom from religion, is a human right and that state sponsorship of selected religions encroaches upon that right. It holds that belief should be a private matter for the home or place of worship and does not belong in the public sphere. In seeking to represent the interests and viewpoints of atheists, the NSS is often critical of what it sees as the damaging effects of religion. The NSS also campaigns actively in Europe against what it regards as the privileged influence of religion in political, law-making and Human Rights issues. Charles Bradlaugh was the founder of the National Secular Society. The National Secular Society was founded in 1866 with Charles Bradlaugh as President and Charles Watts as secretary. There were a number of secularist groups around the UK and they joined up to coordinate and strengthen their campaigns. The word secularism was coined by George Holyoake in 1851. The NSS’s principles asserted that ‘this is the only life we have, and that we should work for its improvement’. In 1877 Bradlaugh and Annie Besant were prosecuted for publishing a book containing birth control information, The Fruits of Philosophy by the American doctor, Charles Knowlton. They were convicted, but acquitted on appeal. The issue of contraception divided secularists and a breakaway group, the British Secular Union, was formed. It closed after a few years. Bradlaugh’s struggle to enter Parliament became an important moment in the development of nineteenth century secularism. He was elected for Northampton in 1880. He believed he had the right to affirm rather than swear on the Bible, but when refused, said he would take the oath. He was told that since he did not believe in the Bible he could not swear on it. For six years he struggled to overcome this problem, by legal and electoral methods. In 1886 a new government allowed him to be sworn in. He later brought about a change giving all MPs the right to affirm. He was a very active MP on behalf of the poor, the Irish and Indian independence. Bradlaugh, who died in 1891, was succeeded as President by G. W. Foote, editor of The Freethinker. Foote noted that the death of Bradlaugh brought the "heroic period" of freethought to an end, and he never succeeded in galvanising NSS members as Bradlaugh had done. Foote's successor was Chapman Cohen (president from 1915–1949), a prolific pamphleteer and author of books on religion and philosophy for a popular audience. In the first half of the twentieth century the NSS campaigned against the BBC’s religious broadcasting policy, for disestablishment and for secular education. Notable presidents in the second half of the twentieth century were David Tribe and Barbara Smoker, who did much to increase the use of the media to put across secularist views. And in the twenty-first century the NSS continues as an organisation campaigning in the UK and the EU against what it regards as religious privilege in public life (see section on Campaigns).

Jan 13, 2014

about kajriwal:

Arvind Kejriwal (born 16 August 1968) is the 7th and current Chief Minister of Delhi. Born in Haryana, Kejriwal is a graduate of the Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, where he studied mechanical engineering. He worked for the Indian Revenue Service (IRS) as a Joint Commissioner in the Income Tax Department. He is well-known for his efforts to bring and implement the Right to Information (RTI) Act at grassroots level and his role in drafting a proposed Jan Lokpal Bill. Kejriwal won the Ramon Magsaysay Award for Emergent Leadership in 2006 for his contribution to the enactment of the Right to Information Act. In 2006, after resigning from the IRS, he donated his Magsaysay award money as a corpus fund to found an NGO, Public Cause Research Foundation. In 2012, he launched the Aam Aadmi Party (AAP), and defeated Sheila Dixit in the 2013 Delhi Legislative Assembly election by a margin of 25,864 votes.Kejriwal was born in the village of Siwani, Haryana, on 16 August 1968 to Gobind Ram Kejriwal and Gita Devi, a well-educated and well-off couple. He has a younger sister and a brother. His father was an electrical engineer who graduated from the Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, and whose work led to many changes in the family's residence. Kejriwal spent most of his childhood in north Indian towns such as Sonepat, Ghaziabad and Hisar. He was educated at Campus School in Hisar. Kejriwal studied mechanical engineering at Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur and then from 1989 he worked for Tata Steel. He left that job in 1992, having previously taken leave of absence in order to study for the Civil Services Examination, and spent some time in Kolkata, at the Ramakrishna Mission in North-East India and at Nehru Yuva Kendra. Kejriwal joined the Indian Revenue Service in 1995 after qualifying through the Civil Services Examination. In 2000, he was granted two years' paid leave to pursue higher education on condition that upon resuming his work he would not resign from the Service for at least three years. Failure to abide by that condition would require him to repay the salary given during the leave period. He rejoined in 2003 and worked for 18 months before taking unpaid leave for 18 months. In February 2006, he resigned from his position as a Joint Commissioner of Income Tax in New Delhi. The Government of India claimed that Kejriwal had violated his original agreement by not working for three years. Kejriwal said that his 18 months of work and 18 months of unpaid absence amounted to the stipulated three year period during which he could not resign and that this was an attempt to malign him due to his involvement with Team Anna, a strand of the Indian anti-corruption movement. The dispute ran for several year until, in 2011, it was resolved when he paid his way out of the Service with the help of loans from friends. Kejriwal is married to Sunita, who is also an IRS officer and his batchmate from National Academy of Administration in Mussoorie and the National Academy of Direct Taxes in Nagpur. The couple have a daughter and a son. Kejriwal is a vegetarian. He has been practicing Vipassana for many years.

Jan 8, 2014

article on united we stand divided we fall:

Unity is strength. A united group of people can always achieve more things than a single man. That is the reason groups are formed in many fields. In ancient times, man used to live alone. He traveled alone and hunted single handedly. But soon he realized that if he joins hands with his fellow men, he can face many of the common dangers. Thus villages were formed which in turn developed into towns, cities and countries. In modern times also groups are formed in all fields and walks of life. We have realized that by forming unions, we can demand and achieve things in a stronger way than by standing alone. There is the story of a rich old man who had tensions. But they always quarreled with one another. The old man knew that if he died, his wealth would be squandered by the quarrelling sons. So he called them to his side and showed a bundle of ten sticks. He asked each one of them to break it into two. But however they tried, none could break the bundle. Then he untied the bundle and gave them each a stick asking them to break it, which they did easily. Thus the sons realized their foolishness and began to live in harmony.

Jan 3, 2014

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