Personality Development


  • Attitude
  • Behavioral Interventions

    What is Attitude???

    Attitude represents a person’s perspective towards a specified target.

    Attitudes are generally positive or negative views of a person, place, thing, or event-- this is often referred to as the attitude object

    Features of Attitude

    have an emotional charge: +ve or –ve.

    occur within a situation.

    cannot be measured directly.

    are learned

    not temporary

    Basic of Types of Attitude




    Positive Attitude

    Positive attitude helps to cope more easily with the daily affairs of life. It brings optimism into your life, and makes it easier to avoid worry and negative thinking

    It manifests in many ways

    A positive attitude leads to happiness and success and can change your whole life.

    Why Have , a positive attitude???


    True salvation is freedom from negativity, and above all from past and future as a psychological need. (Eckhart Tolle)

    Negative thoughts are the enemies of victorious life. Since our life is very much determined by our mind, our thoughts can make or break our life.

    Benefits of Positive Attitude

    One who possesses positive attitude

    Will be able to attract people

    Will have a unique way to look at the world.

    Will have so much to gain.

    Will be more self conscious

    How to build a positive attitude?

    Believe in optimism.

    Have a burning desire to work hard.

    Keep learning

    Never quit.

    Focus on your strengths and not your weaknesses.

    Associate yourself with positive thinkers

    Set realistic targets.

    Follow the principle of 3 most important P’s in life.

    Accept changes

    Stop the blame game

    Be an Optimist

    Be so strong that nothing can disturb your peace of mind.

    Talk health, happiness and prosperity to every person you meet.

    Make all your friends, feel there is something in them.

    Look at the sunny side of everything.

    Think only the best, work only for the best and expect only the best.

    Be as enthusiastic about success of others as your own.

    Forget the mistakes of the past and press on to the greater achievement of the future.

    Give everyone a smile

    Neutral Attitude

    A person with neutral attitude acts as a mere spectator.

    Negative Attitude:

    People with negative attitude are critical about life. They always comment and complain about life’s happenings

    There defining word is a big - NO

    Negative attitude creates misery, hatred and hopelessness

    Types of Negative Attitude

    Miserable type

    Silent killer

    Drama queen

    Woe is me

    Paranoid type

    Trigger type

    Consequences of Negative Attitude

    Shortening your life.

    Creating unpleasant future

    Harming others

    Getting negative returns

    How to overcome Negative Attitude???

    Replace negative thinking with positive thinking.

    Stop dwelling on old hurts and resentment.

    Don’t vent.

    Avoid negative people.

    Boost your mood and self confidence.

    Make a list of negative elements in you and get rid of them.

    Take positive steps to deal with your negative attitude.

    Imagine positive outcomes.

    Make a commitment to be positive and maintain a positive outlook.

    Change will occur if you are aware of negative attitude and adopt a positive outlook.

    Positive Vs Negative

    “There is little difference in people, but that little difference makes a big difference. The little difference is attitude. The big difference is whether it is positive or negative” (W Clement Stone)

    Develop Winning Attitude




    Clarity of values


    Bonding power

    Mastery of Communication

    Components of Attitude




    What is the Right Attitude?

    Right attitude: Be proud of what you possess and hold your self esteem.

    Right attitude should not be mistaken with ego, rather it should be upholded as self esteem, i.e.; holding pride in one’s action is right attitude but being arrogant is not.

    Wrong attitude: Being arrogant and egoistic

    Measuring Attitude

    Choice: Selection of preferred alternative

    Ranking: Rank order preference

    Sorting: Arrange or classify concepts.

    Rating: Estimates magnitude of characteristics.

    Factors Determining Attitude




    Have a great job attitude

    Career Success

    Stress Reduction

    Less Sick days and better productivity

    Improve Teamwork

    Improve customer relations and improve sales

    Improve the attitude of other employees or those who report to you.

    Improve motivation for yourself and others

    Improve decision making and overcome challenges

    Improve interpersonal Relations

    Build Business with Attitude

    Release your old attitudes about money.

    Practice an attitude of gratitude.

    Create an attitude of daily success.

    Expect the unexpected.

    Winners start out with winning attitudes

    Attitude in other Words

    The longer I live, the more I realize the impact of attitude on life. Attitude, to me, is more important than fact. It is more important than the past, than education, than money, than circumstance, than failures, than success, than what other people think or say or do. It is more important than appearance, intelligence or skill. It will make or break a company, a church or a home.”

  • Body Language
  • Body Language
  • What is Body Language?

    Body Language is nonverbal, usually unconscious, communication through the use of postures, gestures, and facial expressions.

    Body Language can be……

    1)    Postures

    2)    Gesture

    3)    Facial Expression

    4)    Eye Contact / Gaze

    Part of Body Language

    1) Head Body language:

              *Face, cheek, Chin, mouth, Lips, teeth, tongue, nose, eyes, eyebrow, forehead and hair.

    2) Arm Body language

    *Elbow, Hand, Finger

    3) Torso Body language

             *Neck, shoulder, back, belly, bottom

    4) Legs Body Language

           *Thigh, knee and foot

    Interpreting Body Language:





    Brisk, erect walk



    Standing with hands on hips

    Readiness, aggression


    Sitting with legs crossed, foot kicking slightly



    Sitting, legs apart

    Open, relaxed


    Arms crossed on chest



    Walking with hands in pockets, shoulders hunched



    Hand to cheek

    Evaluation, thinking


    Touching, slightly rubbing nose

    Rejection, doubt, lying


    Rubbing the eye

    Doubt, disbelief


    Hands clasped behind back

    Anger, frustration, apprehension


    Locked ankles



    Head resting in hand, eyes downcast



    Rubbing hands



    Sitting with hands clasped behind head, legs crossed

    Confidence, superiority


    Open palm

    Sincerity, openness, innocence


    Pinching bridge of nose, eyes closed

    Negative evaluation


    Tapping or drumming fingers



    Steepling fingers



    Patting/fondling hair

    Lack of self-confidence; insecurity


    Quickly tilted head



    Stroking chin

    Trying to make a decision


    Looking down, face turned away



    Biting nails

    Insecurity, nervousness


    Pulling or tugging at ear



    Prolonged tilted head



    Body language Expression:




    Eyes damp; eyebrows slightly pushed together; trembling lower lip; chin possibly wrinkled; head slightly tilted down.


    Eyes wide, closed or pointing down; raised eyebrows; mouth open or corners turned down; chin pulled in; head down, white face


    Eyes wide and staring; eyebrows pulled down (especially in middle); wrinkled forehead; flared nostrils; mouth flattened or clenched teeth bared; jutting chin, red face.


    Mouth smiling (open or closed); possible laughter; crows-feet wrinkles at sides of sparkling eyes; slightly raised eyebrows; head level.


    Eyes cast down and possibly damp or tearful; head down; lips pinched; head down or to the side


    Importance of Body Language:

    1)    Public speaking

    2)    Job Opportunities

    3)    Convincing power

    4)    Interactive power

    5)    Power to Express

    Improve Body language:

    Ø  Don’t cross your arms or legs.

    Ø  Have eye contact, but don’t stare.

    Ø  Don’t be afraid to take up some space.

    Ø  Relax your shoulders.

    Ø  Nod at least once when talking.

    Ø  Don’t slouch, sit up straight.

    Ø  Lean but not too much.

    Ø  Smile and laugh.

    Ø  Don’t touch your face

    More Tips:

    Ø  Keep your head up.

    Ø  Slow down a bit.

    Ø  Don’t get nervous.

    Ø  Use your hands more confidently.

    Ø  Lower your drink.

    Ø  Realize where your spine ends.

    Ø  Don’t stand too close.

    Ø  Mirror practice

    Ø  Keep a good attitude



  • Communication Skill
  • What  is communication?

             Communication is a dynamic process…

             Through this process we convey a thought or feeling to someone else.

             How it is received depends on a set of events, stimuli, that person is exposed to.

             How you say what you say plays an Important role in communication

    Goals of Communication:

    ü  Influence

    ü  Inform

    ü  Express feeling

    Communication Process:……..

    Sender - Know the message you want to communicate and make sure that message contain useful and correct information.

    Encoding – Encoding is the process where the information you would like to communicate gets transferred into a form to be sent and decoded by the receiver. The ability to deliver the message clearly as well as be able to discard any confusing or potentially offensive themes such as cultural issues, or missing information is imperative in this stage.

    Channel – Channels are the way you convey your message. These channels include verbal such as telephone, and face-to-face conversations as well as non-verbal such as e-mail and text messaging. Each individual channel has its strengths and weaknesses in terms of communicating

    Decoding – Decoding is on the receiving end of communication.

    Receiver – Know your audience. Each individual person on the receiving end of your message already has their own ideas and thoughts that will absolutely influence the way they translate your message. By getting to know your audience better you will be able to have a better understanding of how they will react to what you are trying to communicate

    Feedback – As you are communicating your message your audience will provide you with non-verbal and verbal reactions. You will be able to asses while communicating your message if it is being conveyed accurately by paying close attention to non-verbal cues first such as returning eye contact, head nodding etc.

    Context -Context is the environment in which your message is being delivered. For example, If you’re making a work presentation chances are you will be speaking more professionally, than if you were conversing casually with a neighbor or friend

    3 Components of Communication:

             Verbal              : The words we choose.

             Para - Verbal   : The way to say those words.

             Non- Verbal     : Gesture, touch, facial expression and eye contact.

    1)   Verbal Communication:

    It is the spoken, oral, vocal and unwritten way of communicating. It makes use of words, vocabulary, numbers and symbols and is organized in sentences

    *Barriers of Verbal Communication:



             Background and bias







    2)      Non Verbal Communication:

    Non-verbal Communication includes facial expressions, eye contact, tone of voice, body posture and motions, and positioning within groups. It may also include the way we wear our clothes or the silence we keep.

    1)      Gesture

    2)      Touch( Hap tics)

    3)      Body language

    4)      Posture

    5)      Facial Expression

    6)      Eye Contact

    *Barriers of Verbal Communication:

    1)      Wrong Body Language

    2)      Frustrated Gesture

    3)      Misperception      

    4)      Unnecessary body movement

    5)      Flashing or Rolling eye

    6)      Avoiding eye contact or staring people

    How to Improve Communication Skill?

    ü  Pretend you are a newscaster and read out the newspaper to your mirror.

    ü  Do not read local newspapers. Focus on national newspapers.

    ü  While reading a book, underline all the words you do not know. Look them up in the   dictionary.

    ü  Make a list of these words, and make sure you use at least five of them in a conversation during the day.

    ü  Most important, make an effort to speak in English to your friends and family.

    ü  Spruce up your writing skills

    ü  Improve pronunciation and diction

    ü  Think before you speak

    ü  Be an active listener

    ü  Make good eye contact

    ü  Take it slow.

    ü  Use apt volume and tone.

    ü  Practice till perfection

    ü  Be aware of the communication Process

    ü  Digging Deeper

    ü  Clarity of Thought

    ü  Assert respectfully

    ü  Have presence of mind

    7 C’s of Communication:

    1.      Clear: When writing or speaking to someone, be clear about your goal or message. What is your purpose in communicating with this person? If you're not sure, then your audience won't be sure either.

    2.      Concise: When you're concise in your communication, you stick to the point and keep it brief.

    3.       Concrete: When your message is concrete, then your audience has a clear picture of what you're telling them. There are details (but not too many!) and vivid facts, and there's laser like focus. Your message is solid.

    4.      Correct: When your communication is correct, it fits your audience. And correct communication is also error-free communication.

    5.      Coherent: When your communication is coherent, it's logical. All points are connected and relevant to the main topic, and the tone and flow of the text is consistent.

    6.      Complete: In a complete message, the audience has everything they need to be informed and, if applicable, take action.

    7.      Courteous: Courteous communication is friendly, open, and honest. There are no hidden insults or passive-aggressive tones. You keep your reader's viewpoint in mind, and you're empathetic to their needs.








  • Decision Making
  • Decision Making: Meaning

    Decision making can be regarded as an outcome of mental process leading to selection of a course of action among several alternatives. Every decision making process produce a final. The outcome can be action or a opinion of choice.

    Types of Decision making:

    Intuitive Decision making ( Reactive)


    Analytical Decision making (Panned)

    Programmed Decision making


    Non- Programmed Decision making



    Intuitive Decision making:

    Intuition is receiving input and ideas

    Utilize pattern recognition from previous actions, observation and training to develop solution

    It involve additional sensor to perceive and get aware of information.

    Typical examples where intuition can play an important role in making Decision making are:

    1)      Choosing your life partner

    2)      Selecting the right car to buy.

    3)      Evaluation of a job

    4)      Decision about an education

    Analytical Decision making:

    It is followed by following process;

    1)      Calculated selection of alternatives.

    2)      Identify possible option

    3)      Analyze all option according to he set criteria

    4)      Calculate value for all criteria of each option.

    5)      Choose the option with highest total criteria values.

    Programmed Decision making:

    ·         A repetitive decision can be handled by a routine approach.

    ·         Programmed decisions are best in highly structured environment.

    ·         Establishing the ruled across a series of decision.

    ·         Programmed decisions are proactive.

    Non- Programmed decision:

    Decision that are unique and non- recurring

    Decision that generate unique response

    A general guideline for making a decision about a structured problem

    Non – programmed decision is reactive

    Non- Programmed VS Programmed Decision

    Types of Decision

      Decision making Technique




    ·         Routine , Repetitive decision

    ·         Organization develops specific processes for handling them



    2)Clerical routine:

    ·         Standard operating    procedure

    3)Organization Structure:

    ·         Common expectations

    ·         A system of sub- goals

    ·         Well –defined information channels



    1)Operation Research:

    ·         Mathematical analysis

    ·         Models

    ·         Computer simulation

    2)Electronic data processing

    Non – Programmed:

    ·         One-shot, ill structured novel, policy decisions

    ·         Handled by general problem solving processes


    1)Judgment , intuition and creativity

    2)Rule of thumb

    3)Selection and training of executive

    Heuristic problem solving techniques applied to:

    ·         Training human decision makers

    ·         Constructing heuristic computer programs 


    Decision making Process with Example:

    1)      Define the Problem

    ‘My sales Reps need new computers!”

    2)      Identify available alternative solution

    Memory and Storage, Display Quality, Better Life, Warranty, Carrying weight

    3)      Evaluate the identified solutions

    Memory and Storage-10, Display Quality -8, Better Life -6,Warranty -4, Carrying weight-3

    4)      Make the decision

    Toshiba, HP, Sony Vaio, Qosmio, Gateway, Apple iBook, Lenovo, Dell

    5)      Implement the decision

    Toshiba, HP, Sony ,Vaio, Qosmio, Gateway, Apple iBook, Lenovo, Dell

    6)      Evaluate the decision


    Decision Making Technique:

    1)      Brain Storming: Brainstorming is a group or individual creativity technique by which efforts are made to find a conclusion for a specific problem by gathering a list of ideas spontaneously contributed by its member(s)

    2)      Delphi Method: A forecasting method based on the results of questionnaires sent to a panel of experts. Several rounds of questionnaires are sent out, and the anonymous responses are aggregated and shared with the group after each round. The experts are allowed to adjust their answers in subsequent rounds. Because multiple rounds of questions are asked and because each member of the panel is told what the group thinks as a whole, the Delphi Method seeks to reach the "correct" response through consensus.

    3)      SWOT analysis: It include

    S- Strength

    W- Weakness

    O- Opportunities

    T- Threat

    How to make Good Decision

    PROACT’ approach is best to make good decisions:

    Pr-Problem statement





    Decision Making For Manager

    1)      Beware Of “Groupthink

    2)      Ethical decision making

    3)      Never look back and wonder “What if”

    4)      Risk taking is involved in every decision making.

    5)      Requires Authority and willingness to take risks

    Group Decision Making:

    Group decision making is decision making in groups consisting of multiple members/entities. The challenge of group decision is deciding what action a group should take. There are various systems designed to solve this problem

    Mistakes to Avoid In Decision Making:

    1)      Failure to recognize a problem

    2)      Incorrect problem Identification

    3)      Insufficient consideration of alternatives

    4)      Inadequate evaluation of risk

    5)      Repetitive decisions

    6)      Unnecessary decisions

    7)      Delayed decisions

    8)      Lack of follow-up

    Guidelines for Effective Decision Making:

    1)      Know the problem

    2)      Do your homework

    3)      What’s the worst case scenario

    4)      Consider the pros and cons

    5)      Ask your confidants

    6)      Visualize the positive results

    7)      Don’t forget your values

    8)      Trust your intuition

    9)      Stick to your decision









  • Effective Listening
  • Meaning of listening: Listening is the process of taking in what we hear and mentally organizing it to make sense of it. Listening is considered to be the one of the most important part of the oral communication .



    §  Physiological process

    §  Reception of sound waves by ears


    §  Hearing as well as interpreting including other



    §  Listening demonstrates acceptance.

    §  Listening promotes problem-solving abilities.                                      

    §  Listening can increase a speaker’s receptiveness to the ideas of others

    §      Listening increases the self-esteem of the other person.

    §      Listening helps you overcome self-consciousness and self-         centeredness.

    §    Listening can help to prevent head-on emotional collisions.


    Listening: More than Meets the Ear:

             Listening is the most frequent form of communication.

             Listening has been identified as one of the most necessary skills in the business world.

    Why Be A Good Listener?

    ·        To be recognized and remembered.

    ·        To feel valued.

    ·        To feel appreciated.

    ·        To feel respected.

    ·        To feel understood.

    ·        To feel comfortable about a want or need.


    ·        HEARING

    ·        ATTENDING

    ·        UNDERSTANDING

    ·        RESPONDING

    ·        REMEMBERING




             APPRECIATIVE LISENING: Where the listener gains pleasure/satisfaction from listening to a certain type of music for example. Appreciative sources might also include particular charismatic speakers or entertainers.

             CRITICAL LISTENING: Where the listener may be trying to weigh up whether the speaker is credible, whether the message being given is logical and whether they are being duped or manipulated by the speaker.

             DISCRIMINATIVE LISTENING: Where the listener is able to identify and distinguish inferences or emotions through the speaker’s change in voice tone, their use of pause, etc. Some people are extremely sensitive in this way, while others are less able to pickup these subtle cues.

             EMPATHIC LISTENING: Where the listener tends to listen rather than talk. Their non-verbal behavior indicates that the listener is attending to what is being said. The emphasis is on understanding the speaker’s feelings and being supportive and patient.

             INFORMATIVE LISTENING: Where your aim is to concentrate on the message being given. This may be the content of a lesson, directions, instructions, etc.



    §   Pre assuming the subject.

    §  Criticism of speaker’s delivery

    §  Over reacting

    §  Listening only to the facts

    §  Outlining everything

    §  Permitting the speaker to be inaudible

    §  Avoid technical messages

    §  Withdrawing attention


    §  Equate With Hearing                          

    §  Uninteresting Topics

    §  Speaker’s Delivery

    §  External Distractions

    §  Mentally Preparing Response

    §  Listening for Facts

    §  Personal Concerns

    §  Personal Bias

    §  Language/Culture Differences

    §  Faking Attention


          “There’s a reason
                   why God gave us two ears
                                 and only one mouth.”

                                                       Mark Twain


    ACTIVE LISTENING: Active Listening is a process in which the listener takes active responsibility to understand the content and feeling of what is being said and then checks with the speaker to see if he/she heard what the speaker intended to communicate.

    Elements to Effective/Active Listening:

             Content: The subject the speaker is addressing

             Feelings: The emotions the speaker has when discussing the subject.

             Process: The manner the speaker delivers the subject matter.

             Clarification: The ability of the individual listening to ask questions and to seek understanding of the subject matter.

    Active Listening Skills:

    §  Check Attitude and Atmosphere

    §   Keep the channel open and avoid short  circuits

    §  Listening requires response from listener

    §   Keep the door open

    §  Ask good questions

    §  Clarify Meanings

    §  Learn about others thoughts, feelings and wants

    §  Encourage elaboration

    §  Encourage discovery

    §  Gather more facts and details

    Tips to Active Listening:

    The most important thing in communication is to hear what isn't being said.

                       ~ Peter F. Drucker

    §  Ask Good Questions

    §  Paraphrase

    §  Empathize

    §  Stop Talking

    §  Eliminate Distractions

    §  Don’t give advice until asked

    §  Show interest in the speaker and the conversation

    §  Prompt the speaker

    §  Attend to non-verbal cues

    §  Give Feedback

  • Etiquettes
  • Personal Behavior


    Etiquettes are rules governing  socially acceptable behaviour…

    Etiquette refers to the conventional requirements of social behavior. Or in more simple terms, it means knowing how to act. Different situations require different types of etiquette

    Basic Etiquettes:

    Time Management

    Dressing etiquettes

    Business/workplace etiquettes

    Social graces

    Time Management:

    Realize that time management is a myth

    Find out where are you wasting time

    Create time management goals

    Implement a time management

    Use time management tools

    Prioritize ruthlessly

    Learn to delegate and or outsource

    Establish routines and stick to them as much as possible.

    Get in habits of setting time limits      

    Be sure your systems are organized.

    Don’t waste time waiting.

    Dressing Etiquettes:

    For Men:

    Casual wear for men

    Formal business wears for men.

    Shoes and accessories

    For Women:

    Casual wear for women

    Formal business wears for women

    Shoes and accessories

    Business/Workplace Etiquettes

    “Business Etiquettes is the subtle redefining difference which enables people to excel and succeed in today’s corporate culture. (Cindy Grosso)

    It is very important to practice good manners and etiquettes in order to succeed in your business, be liked by people and maintain good relationships with clients, customers and employees

    Need for Business Etiquettes

    Global workforce , International clients , Joint ventures, Educated work force has redefined social & business etiquettes and manners of Indian business culture.

     Appearances , attitudes and behaviors of employees have become direct reflections of company and brand.

    Knowing how to conduct oneself with confidence and ease can determine whether one gets project, lands the contract or moves up the corporate ladder

     Thus it become essential for professionals to know the right things to do at corporate formal get together  lunches , dinners and social events.

     Forms of Business Etiquettes

    Introduction or greeting etiquettes

    Meeting/Events Etiquettes

    Dining Etiquettes

    Telephonic Etiquettes


    Business corresponce Etiquettes

    Other Etiquettes

    Introduction or greeting etiquettes

    Have proper eye contact

    Follow a proper style of greeting

    Forget any gender rule.

    Forget any racist rule

    Introduce yourself

    Introduce accompanying clients.

    Dining Etiquettes:

    Go through restaurant earlier

    Alcohol order

    Talk the talk

    Proper cash arrangement

    Meetings/Events Etiquettes:

    When should you respond to RSVP?

    When should you arrive for an event?

    What should you talk at the end?

    When should you talk at the event?

    What other business etiquettes rules to follow?

    Telephonic Etiquettes

    Basic Telephonic Etiquettes

    Introductory telephonic etiquettes

    Other professional telephone etiquettes

    Business Letters:

    There are many points that are to be kept in mind while writing business letters. The etiquette related to the respective is termed as Business Correspondence etiquettes.

    Email Etiquettes:

    When dealing with e-mail and files there are also some rules you must go by.

    By following these rules, you stay updated and your files and e-mail stay organized


    Rules of netiquette

    Revoking  priviledges

    Netiquette refers to the basic etiquettes needed to use internet.

    Other Etiquettes:

    Have a handshake always upon arrival and departure.

    Names and titles.

    Situations Where Social and Business Introduction Rules are the same; there the etiquettes followed need not much change

    Business Etiquettes:

    Business card etiquettes

    The etiquette of personal space

    The etiquette of communication

    The etiquette of gift giving

    Rules of Business Etiquettes in India:

    Giving business gifts in India

    Addressing others in Business contexts

    Polite conversation in India

    Do Indians shake hands

    Personal space among Indians

    Attitude to Time in India

    Building Relationships

    Tips on Workplace Etiquettes

             Zip it.

             Sit. Wait, think and act when correct

             Listen, Don’t dispute

             Document, document and document again

             Good Fences make for good work relations

             Cordiality and friendliness

             Don’t overreact

             Play well with others

             Let brevity and paucity be your motto

             What you see is what you get

    Social Graces:

    P  Art of small talk- when appropriate

    P  Introductions in events

    P  Ladies first: an old but followed grace

    P  Toasting: a grace to celebrate


    When someone asked me how to be rude to his mother-in-law without getting caught, I replied that the only way to do that is by keeping extremely polite



  • Greeting And Introducing
  • 1





    Nice meeting you, Mr. Khan.

    Me too.





    May I know your name?

    I am Rakesh


    Good Morning.

    Good Morning!


    Are you Mr. Dubey…..?

    Yes, I am.


    Indu , Meet Mr.Salman

    How do you do, Mr.Salman



    How are you Shelly?

    Fine, how are you

  • Grooming
  • Eye contact: Eye contact is one of the most important aspects of dealing with others, especially people we've just met. Maintaining good eye contact shows respect and interest in what they have to say. Here in the UK we tend to keep eye contact around 60-70% of the time. (However, there are wide cultural differences, so be careful in other countries) By doing this you won't make the other people feel self conscious, like they've got a bit of vegetable stuck between their teeth or a dew drop hanging from the nose. . Instead, it will give them a feeling of comfort and genuine warmth in your company, any more eye contact than this and you can be too intense, any less and you give off a signal that you are lacking interest in them or their conversation.

    Posture: Posture is the next thing to master, get your posture right and you'll automatically start feeling better, as it makes you feel good almost instantly. Next time you notice you're feeling a bit down, take a look at how your standing or sitting. Chances are you'll be slouched over with your shoulders drooping down and inward. This collapses the chest and inhibits good breathing, which in turn can help make you feel nervous or uncomfortable.

    Head position is a great one to play around with, with yourself and others. When you want to feel confident and self assured keep your head level both horizontally and vertically. You can also use this straight head position when you want to be authoritative and what you're saying to be taken seriously. Conversely, when you want to be friendly and in the listening, receptive mode, tilt your head just a little to one side or other. You can shift the tilt from left to right at different points in the conversation.

    Arms give away the clues as to how open and receptive we are to everyone we meet and interact with, so keep your arms out to the side of your body or behind your back. This shows you are not scared to take on whatever comes your way and you meet things "full frontal". In general terms the more outgoing you are as a person, the more you tend to use your arms with big movements. The quieter you are the less you move your arms away from your body. So, try to strike a natural balance and keep your arm movements midway. When you want to come across in the best possible light, crossing the arms is a no, no in front of others. Obviously if someone says something that gets your goat, then by all means show your disapproval by crossing them !

    Legs are the furthest point away from the brain, consequently they're the hardest bits of our bodies to consciously control. They tend move around a lot more than normal when we are nervous, stressed or being deceptive. So best to keep them as still as possible in most situations, especially at interviews or work meetings. Be careful too in the way you cross your legs. Do you cross at the knees, ankles or bring your leg up to rest on the knee of the other? This is more a question of comfort than anything else. Just be aware that the last position mentioned is known as the "Figure Four" and is generally perceived as the most defensive leg cross, especially if it happens as someone tells a you something that might be of a slightly dubious nature, or moments after. (As always, look for a sequence)

    Angle of the body in relation to others gives an indication of our attitudes and feelings towards them. We angle toward people we find attractive, friendly and interesting and angle ourselves away from those we don't, it's that simple! Angles includes leaning in or away from people, as we often just tilt from the pelvis and lean sideways to someone to share a bit of conversation. For example, we are not in complete control of our angle at the cinema because of the seating nor at a concert when we stand shoulder to shoulder and are packed in like sardines. In these situations we tend to lean over towards the other person.

    Hand gestures are so numerous it's hard to give a brief guide but here goes. Palms slightly up and outward is seen as open and friendly. Palm down gestures are generally seen as dominant, emphasizing and possibly aggressive, especially when there is no movement or bending between the wrist and the forearm. This palm up, palm down is very important when it comes to handshaking and where appropriate we suggest you always offer a handshake upright and vertical, which should convey equality.

    Distance from others is crucial if you want to give off the right signals. Stand too close and you'll be marked as "Pushy" or "In your face". Stand or sit too far away and you'll be "Keeping your distance" or "Stand offish". Neither are what we want, so observe if in a group situation how close are all the other people to each other. Also notice if you move closer to someone and they back away, you're probably just a tiny bit too much in their personal space, their comfort zone. "You've overstepped the mark" and should pull back a little.

    Ears, yes your ears play a vital role in communication with others, even though general terms most people can't move them much, if at all. However, you've got two ears and only one mouth, so try to use them in that order. If you listen twice as much as you talk you come across as a good communicator who knows how to strike up a balanced a conversation without being me, me, me or the wallflower.

    Mouth movements can give away all sorts of clues. We purse our lips and sometimes twist them to the side when we're thinking. Another occasion we might use this movement is to hold back an angry comment we don't wish to reveal. Nevertheless, it will probably be spotted by other people and although they may not know the comment, they will get a feeling you were not to pleased. There are also different types of smiles and each gives off a corresponding feeling to its recipient which we'll cover next time.

  • Group Discussion


    What is a group discussion?

    “A group discussion is a simulated exercise, where you cannot suddenly put up a show, since the evaluators will see through you easily.”



    1.     Institute’s perspective.

    2.     Company’s perspective



    ·        BODY OF GD



    Personality traits, GD is trying to gauge:

             Ability to work in a team

             Communication skills

             Reasoning ability

             Leadership skills








             Clarity of thought

             Group working skills

             Conflict handling

              Listening and probing skills


             Ability to create a consensus

             Openness towards new ideas

             Data based approach to decision making


    GD is a test of your ability to think, your analytical capabilities and your ability to make your point in a team based environment.

             Leadership Skills

             Communication skills

             Interpersonal Skills

             Persuasive skills





    1.     TOPIC BASED GD

    2.     CASE BASED GD






    1.     Try to interrupt others.

    2.     Maintain eye contact with speaker.

    3.     Gauge eye movement and pitch of speaker.

    4.     Try and link your inputs.




    —  Address the person farthest from you.

    —  Be in formal dress.

    —  Use formal , plain and simple language



    ·        OBSERVE

    ·        PRACTICE

    ·        PARTCIPATE


    DO’S & DON’TS IN GD:

    1.     Keep eye contact while listening.

    2.     Initiate the GD.

    3.     Allow others to speak.

    4.     Speak clearly.

    5.     Make sure to bring the  discussion on track.

    6.     Positive attitude.

    7.     Speak sensibly.

    8.     Listen carefully to others.

    9.     No need to go into much detail

    10.   Formal dressing


    1.     Emotional outburst.

    2.     Quality vs. Quantity.

    3.     Selfishness.

    4.     Get noticed for wrong reasons.

    5.     Insecurity


    1.     It helps you to understand a subject more deeply.

    2.     It improves your ability to think critically.

    3.     It helps in solving a particular problem.

    4.      It helps the group to make a particular decision.

    5.     It gives you the chance to hear other students' ideas.

    6.     It improves your listening skills.

    7.     It increases your confidence in speaking.

    8.     It can change your attitudes.


    1.     Enhanced communication skills.

    2.     Feel confident to work in a team.

    3.     Better leadership qualities.

    4.     Take initiative.

    5.     Enhanced decision making ability.

    6.     Active listening skills.



    1.     Economy related

    2.     Related to political events, opinions and situations

    3.     Issues and argument related topics .
















  • Ice Breaker
  • Ice Breaker 1

    Truth, truth Lie

    Give the group some time to write down two things about themselves that are true, and one thing that is a “lie.”  Each group member will then share these facts about themselves and the rest of the group has to figure out which “fact” is actually a “lie.”

    Ice Breaker 2


    If they made a movie of your life, what kind of movie would it be and who would be cast as you? Are you James...James Bond? Or more the Ahnold type? Maybe you’re like Scarlet in Gone With the Wind. Or Cat Woman. Is your life an adventure, drama, romance, or horror flick? Entertain us.


    Ideal Size: Any size works.

    Use For: Introductions in the classroom or at a meeting.

    Materials Needed: None.

    Instructions: Give your participants a few minutes to imagine what kind of movie would be made about their life, and who would be cast as them. Ask each person to give their name and share their movie fantasy. Would their life be a drama with Meryl Streep as the lead? Or more like a Jim Carrey comedy?

    As a variation, you could modify this game by asking participants to share the kind of movie they’d like their life to be.

    Debriefing: No debriefing is necessary unless the exercise involves your topic in some way.

    Ice Breaker 3

    This is a fun game that involves writing your first impression of someone you meet. If some people already know each other, that’s fine too — people can simply write some nice, encouraging words or adjectives to describe each other. This works well as an icebreaker for meetings, when there are new people present, or when people don’t know each other well. It can be entertaining as a party game, too.

    To set up First Impressions, pass out the large sheets of paper and writing utensils. Have each person write their name on the top of a sheet of paper. Tape each person’s sheet to their back so that they can’t see it. Instruct everyone to mingle with each other and to converse. Tell everyone to say hello and to introduce each other for a few moments. After a minute or so, ask each person to write an adjective (their “first impression” of the person they just spoke with) on each other’s papers. Then have each person continue mingling with new people, repeating the process. After 10-20 minutes (depending on how large your group is and how long you want this activity to run), each person should have several adjectives and descriptive words listed on their backs. Go around the room and introduce each other, reading the words writen on your neighbor’s paper. This should be pretty humorous, and if people did this activity correctly, there should be lots of kind things said about each other.

    Important note: instruct everyone to write nice (or encouraging) words ONLY! Do not allow any mean, rude, or critical words to be written. For example, one can write words such as “beautiful smile,” “great sense of humor,” “smart and witty personality,” “gifted listener,” etc.

    Ice Breaker 4

    Write me a story

    This ice breaker game encourages participants to use their imagination and improve their creativity. Ask everyone to sit down. Hand each individual a sheet of A4 paper and explain that they should write a page about something that happened in their lives that they feel is important to them, e.g. Having children, travelling abroad, a sky dive etc. Once they have written their creative piece ask them to hand their stories in. Mix the stories up and hand out to the group. Instruct the group, one at a time, to read out the story they have been given and then to guess who they think the story belongs to. This ice breaker helps the class interact and strikes a creative cord in the group.

    Ice Breaker 5

    Pocket Alphabet

    Split your group into teams (4 or 5 per team). Instruct the whole group to pull out everything in their pockets. They then have to try and make the alphabet out of the items they have by using the first letter of each item e.g. Brush = B, wallet = W, penny = P etc. The group that obtains the most letters from their items wins. This game encourages the group to work as a team

    Ice Breaker 6

    Icebreaker game 6 ha ha ha!

    An informal ice breaker for groups of 7 or so. Do not play with people with sense of humour by-passes.

    Have each person lay in a line on the floor side by side, like sardines in a tin. Each person must lay their left hand lightly on the stomach of the person on their left. (Assuming all their heads are on the same side!)

    Person 1 says “HA”. Person 2 says “HA HA”. Person 3 says “HA HA HA” and so on up the line. Any gigglers must be taken out the line and people left shuffle along to fill the whole. Start the game again with Person 1 and keep going until everyone has giggled and no-one is left.

    In the unlikely event that you get to the end of the line without any gigglers, send the HA’s back to Person 1, but carry on the count of HA’s – “HA HA HA HA HA HA HA….” I guarantee it won’t be long until the concentration lapses and giggling ensues.

    Ice Breaker 7

    Constructive Feedback


    This icebreaker begins when you ask for a volunteer to come to the front. Position the volunteer facing the audience and place an empty cardboard box behind them, but not directly behind them. Have 30 pieces of crumpled paper within arms reach of volunteer. It is the group's responsibility to give the volunteer hints on how to get the wads of paper into the box without turning around. Example "a little bit more to the right". When that person has gotten 3 pieces into the box successfully, then find another volunteer and continue.

    Ice Breaker 8


    The objective of this icebreaker is to get acquainted with others. Write the name of some distinctive sounding animals on slips of paper. Create 5 to 10 slips for each animal. Hand the slips out and ask the participants to find all the same animals without talking. This makes for a fun way to get acquainted.

    Ice Breaker 9

    Talk show icebreaker

    For this icebreaker game, you will want to start by splitting your group into pairs.

    Ask each person to find a semi-private spot and interview their partner. One acts as a talk show host and the other acts as a guest. The talk show host has to find out two interesting facts about the guest. Afterwards, the partners switch roles and repeat the activity.

    After a few minutes and a lot of chatting, you can ask everyone to gather into a large group once more. Then, have each person (briefly) present the two interesting facts that they learned about their partner.

    Ice Breaker 10


    The best icebreaker games are those that are simple, and this one couldn't be any easier. All you have to do is gather everyone in a circle and get them to toss a ball to one another. When someone catches the ball, they shout out their name. It doesn't take long to play and it's much more interesting than nametags.

    Ice Breaker 11

    Super Model Exercise       

    Objective - Ice breaker or energizer - Great for laughs and relaxation. Shedding of status and roles.

    Time required -5-10 minutes.

    Space requirements - big enough for participants to form a circle.

    How to do it:

    1.      Arrange participants in a circle.

    2.      Instruct participants that they have to act out your instructions. When pointed to and given the following commands:

    "Super Model" - Participant should immediately pose as a fashion model. The two participants alongside the participant acting as a super model (the one on the left and the right) take the role of photographers and mimic gestures of taking a photo.

    "Elephant"- Participant poses as an elephant by immediately thrusting two hands held together in front to represent the elephant's trunk. The two participants alongside form a circle with their hands and place them on the side of the participant pointed to serve as "ears" of the elephant.

    "Jello" - Participant shakes his or her body like jello continuously. The two participants alongside hold each other's hands and form a circle around the target participant. The idea is to form a "glass" around the jello.

    "Queen Bee" - Participant turns around and puts his or her hands together behind the back (just above the buttocks) and flutters them back and forth to mimic a bee's tail. The two participants alongside thrust their arms away from the bee and flutter them like wings.

    "Donkey" - participant and those alongside him or her should freeze and not move at all

    Expect that people will be confused and make mistakes. Such mistakes generate laughter and fun. To make the exercise competitive, participants who make a mistake (both the one pointed to and the two participants alongside him or her) can be eliminated from the game.

    Ice Breaker 12

    The Last Word

    The participants should stand in a circle. One participant moves and stands randomly in front of another. He/she makes a statement (e.g., “It is such a lovely day”). The person spoken to will move to another person and make a statement starting with the last word in the statement he/she received (e.g., “Day one of the course was very tiring”). Each participant takes turns to ensure that everybody gets a chance to participate.

    Ice Breaker 13

    What do you have?

    Divide the participants into teams of 4-6 people. Each team should make a list of 6-8 items that they would probably have with them. Make one or two items less common things. The team gets points for each person who has these items. Only one of each item per person can be counted and the team with the most points wins.  The list could include: a photograph, a calculator, a pencil, a photograph of a family member, an unusual key chain, something red, etc.

    Ice Breaker 14                                                                                   


    Divide the participants into teams of five people. Ask the teams to list: things that are square, things associated with a holiday, things that are red, things they can make out a coat hanger, etc. The teams are not allowed to discuss, just list items! The team with the most items on their list wins.   

    Ice Breaker 15

    Boom! - All participants should sit in a circle. They are instructed to count out loud around the circle. Each person whose number is a multiple of 3 (3-6-9-12, etc.) or a number that ends with 3 (13-23-33, etc.) must say BOOM! instead of the number. The next person continues the normal sequence of numbers.  

    Example: The first person starts with 1, the next one says 2, and the person who should say 3 says BOOM! instead, and the next person says 4.

    Anyone who fails to say BOOM! or who makes a mistake with the number that follows BOOM! is disqualified.

    The numbers must be said rapidly (5 seconds maximum); if a participant takes too long to say her/his number, s/he is disqualified.  

    The last two participants left are the winners. 

    Note: You can have the participants “clap” once instead of saying Boom.   

    Note: To make this energizer more interesting, when a specific number is reached (e.g., 30) have the participants count backwards towards zero.  The game can be made more complex by using multiples of bigger numbers, or by combining multiples of three with multiples of five.

    Ice Breaker 16

    Hot Paper

    Participants sit in a circle away from the tables and close their eyes. The trainer gives a small ball to one participant who is instructed to pass the ball quickly to the next person saying “Hot! Participants continue to pass the ball around the group.   As the ball is passed from participant to participant, the trainer turns her/his back, closes eyes and calls out “Pepper!” The person who is holding the ball when “Pepper!” is called is removed from the circle. The ball continues to be passed until only one person is left.

    Ice Breaker 17

    Words - Divide the participants into three or four small groups. Write the word INTERACTIVE on the flipchart. The groups have 5 minutes to create as many three-letter words as possible from the word INTERACTIVE.

    For example, some of the words could be:  

    ·         It

    ·         Rat

    ·         Retain

    After the their time is gone, the group with the most words wins.   Note: Depending on the topic, other words can be used in this way, such as “demonstration,” “counseling,” etc.

    Ice Breaker 18

    Find the missing piece

    The facilitator prepares pieces of paper, enough for everybody in the group. The papers include words that are split into two, for example:

    COCOA          BUTTER
    MILE              STONE
    ICE                 CREAM

    Each person picks one piece of paper and then begins to look for the person who has the matching word. When the participant has found her/his match, s/he should to know the other person and tell each other their favorite food or name the animal they feel best describes them and why. Then, they will be asked to introduce one another to the rest of the group.                                                                                                                                         

    An alternative is to use words that are opposites. For example:

    BLACK           WHITE
    UP                               DOWN
    LEFT                           RIGHT
    HOT                            COLD

    Ice Breaker 19

    What’s the question?

    Step 1: The facilitator writes some facts on the board. Example:

    16 months

    Step 2: Participants try to think of the question that matches each fact.

    Purple - What's your favorite color? What color is your car? What color is your favorite clothing?

    16 months - How long have you lived in this city? How old is your child? How long have you been married?

    Kenya - Where were you born? Where have you worked? Where are you going on vacation?

    Step 3: When participants have discovered all of the questions, place them in small groups (3 - 4). Repeat steps 1 and 2. Have participants introduce each other to the large group.

    Ice Breaker 20

    Name chain

    You can play "Name Chain" as a followup to the “Nonsense Name Game.”

    Introduce yourself and the person to your right.

    “I'm kooky Katherine. This is darling Dorothy."

    The person to your right repeats previous introductions and introduces the person to their right.

    “She's kooky Katherine. I'm darling Dorothy. He's generous George.”

    Continue with the next person to the right, until all names have been repeated. Challenge volunteers to rhyme off all names quickly!

    Ice Breaker 21

    What do we have in common?

    Split the participants into pairs. Each pair will have 30 seconds to think of five things they have in common. At the end of the 30 seconds, put two pairs together and give the group a minute to find something all four participants have in common. Finally, each group can present the list of things they have in common

    Ice Breaker 22

    Tell us About Yourself?

    Pass around a bag of candy. Tell the participants to take as many as they want. Once all the participants have candy, tell them that for each candy they took they have to say one thing about themselves. For instance, if a participant took 10 candies, they would have to say 10 things about themselves.

    Ice breaker 23

    AH So Ko

    Start with the group standing (or sitting) in a circle. Use hand gestures for the folowing:

    • Ah (hand under the chin palm facing the floor)
    • So (hand at forehead, in salute fashion), and
    • Ko (arm and hand out in front of you pointing at another player).

    One person starts with “Ah” (hand to neck). The direction the hand is pointing, that person follows with “So” (hand to forehead). Similar, the direction of the hand signals that person to do “Ko”. And so on... If someone “messes up” or forgets to act they are “outta the game.”

    At that point, they step out of the circle, and the person to the right has a silent 3 second count to start the game again with “Ah”.

    Game continues until 2-3 people are left (up to you whether the last 2 compete for AhSoKo champion title!).


    Optional ways to continue to involve everyone:

    ·        The people who get “out” create their "outside" version going on at the same time. Need at least 3 to be "out."

    ·        The people who get “out” can become “hecklers” whose job it is to try to get the others to mess up. Rules of being a heckler are, hecklers must stay on the outside of the circle, cannot obstruct vision, physically touch anyone, or be cruel.

    Ice Breaker 24

    Best and Worst


    Ask each person in the group to write down one best and one worst question that they want to learn about the group. e.g.

    • What's the best recipe you know?
    • What's the worst injury you've ever had?
    • What's the best thing you've ever smelled?
    • What's the worst present you have ever given someone?
    • What's the best voicemail you have ever received?
    • What's the worst trip you have ever taken?

    Put all the ideas in a hat and have everyone pick 2 at random (meaning they might get their own question)! Go around the circle and have everyone share their answers and brief related stories.

    Ice Breaker 25

    Stare and Share


    You have been grouped together in 4 sets of 3's. Standup facing your team members.

    Next, stare at each other for one minute and take in as much as you can during that time. After the minute is up, I will tell you what to do next.

    Now everyone sit at the table next to your team member. Each of you will be asked questions about what you observed while staring at your team members.

    Team 1

    Tiffany – What color is Holly’s shoes?

    Holly – Does Laura have on a ring?

    Laura – Does Tiffany have nail polish on, if so what color?


    Team 2

    Phyllis – Does Dan have freckles or any other markings (moles/scars) that are visible?

    Dan – Does Susie wear glasses or contacts?

    Susie – Describe what Phyllis is wearing?


    Team 3

    Natasha – Is Sonia wearing make-up?

    Sonia – Is Winona wearing a watch?

    Winona – What color is Natasha hair?


    Team 4

    Karen – What color is Heather’s eyes?

    Heather – Is Karen wearing a necklace?

    Lisa – What color is Nikki pants?

    Nikki – Is Lisa wearing socks/stocking?


    ·        How did you feel being observed in this way?

    ·        What did you get from the other person's body language?

    Ice Breaker 26

    Teach a talent

    Set Up

    pair up participants


    •Everyone selects one talent or special gift that they possess and can teach or demonstrate for the other person. They introduce themselves, explain what their special talent is, and then teach the other person how to do their special talent. Should be something simple, e.g. how to whistle, how to snap, how to tie a special knot, or how to find out some information, how to spin a pen on your finger, etc.



    You can customise this by asking participants to share their particular area of expertise, related to the subject of the training, that they are willing to share during the workshop.

    Ice Breaker 27



    This fun exercise generates quite a bit of a laugh and is most suited to group of people who are meeting for the first time. It also works for people who work with each other and are familiar with each other’s sense of humour.


    Participants to congratulate each other on things that are not true.


    • Explain to participants that they have 10 minutes to congratulate other members on things that are not true or give them a fake compliment. The more exaggerated the compliment the better.
    • Examples include:
      • Congratulation on winning £5,000,000 in lotto
      • Congratulation on winning gold in heavy weight boxing last month
      • Congratulation for being invited to dinner by Obamas


    Explaining the Test: 5 minutes.

    Activity: 10 minutes

    Group Feedback: 10 minutes.


    What did you achieve with this exercise? How does it feel to praise someone else? Did you feel comfortable? Do you think you complement others enough?


  • Interview Skills
  •  Interview skills

    Session Structure

    Interview Handling Skills

    Frequently Asked Questions

    Interview Handling Skills

    Most people need interview handling skills in every phase of their lives. The more we are aware of what goes into preparing for interviews and absorbing valuable inputs, the better for us.

    Much is said, written and feared about interviews, so it can be a bit confusing. Let’s attempt to summarize relevant information into specific groups. These are given below:

    Before the interview

    Creating a good first impression

    During the interview

    Being prepared for some commonly asked questions at interviews

    Before he interviews

    ·      Do you home work. Study details about the company you will be going to. If you have applied for a number of jobs, set your records right. Know the company background, all relevant information and future projections through friends, company website and other sources. Be alert to changes, takeovers, and other important facts.

    ·      Prepare yourself with interview-related information. Company name and address, location landmarks, person who you will meet, his/her designation and office details; telephone numbers. Leave with time on hand to spare so that there’s no chance of your being late.

    ·      Prepare yourself to feel stress-free. Be as minimally stressed as possible. Having time on hand is de-stressing, one less thing to worry about. If you are otherwise prepared both regarding how you look and how you feel, you’re definitely on the right track.

    ·      Preparation and practice. Know that most spontaneous answers are actually the result of careful preparation ad practice. So practice. Think of 20 questions you hope you won’t be asked at the interview and prepare answers for them. Then practice saying them as best and as confidently as you can.

    ·      Organize yourself. Think of things you will need. Address and phone numbers, copy of your resume and other documents likely to be needed, and passport-size photographs if the company has asked for them; list the details and be organized.

     Create a good first impression

    ·       This can’t be said often enough or be emphasized enough be there in time. Don’t plan to be there on time but in time. There’s a difference between the two. On time means that you plan to be there on the dot. We know that this isn’t generally possible, so plan to be there well in time, with time to spare. How early depends on how far you have to commute, the kind of traffic you will face, other relevant issues bout which only you are aware.

    ·      Put your mobile phone on silent mode, or switch it off

    ·      Smile. Smile as you walk through the door, smile naturally when you answer questions. Let the smile within you show itself on your face.

    ·      Be confident. Without being overbearing or overconfident. Once you are well prepared. It doesn’t help to worry. Prospective employers look for confident people to work for their organizations. On the topic of confidence, know that the interview is not one-sided you are going to interview them, too.

    ·      Take care of posture and body language. Stand tall without slouching, making it seem like a comfortable posture for you. Also know that overconfidence kills, positive body language works.

    ·      Let your accessories add, not take away from a good first impression. At interviews, less is more. Wear those that match simple and elegant clothes, footwear, bag etc. if you decided to use perfume or cologne, wear a very light fragrance. Make sure you don’t smell unpleasant.

    ·      Dress appropriately. Your attire should reflect the job you are seeking, as well as the personality you are trying to project. It is generally better to be under-stated than attract unnecessary attention with your attire.

    During the interview

    ·      Wait to be asked to sit, and where to sit.

    ·      When you do sit, do so with good posture and grace, not slouching or with nervousness.

    ·      Maintain an appropriate physical distance from the other people present in the room.

    ·      Offer to shake hands only if the interviewer extends the other first.

    ·      Do not fidget with your mobile phone, accessories or other gadgets during the interview.

    ·      Be concise in whatever you say. When you are asked a question, clear and honest answers are expected of you. But the interviewee doesn’t have too much time to listen to you, so choose your words with care.

    ·      Be prepared with examples to back up what you say. This could relate to qualities you have, work you have done or values that you hold. Let the examples be simple and clear.

    ·      Be honest. Honestly pays and it shows.

    ·      Keep your guard up, through. Sometimes in our effort to be honest we say too much, or say things that might work against us. For instance, when asked about where we see ourselves five years down the line, we might get carried away and say we hope to head our own flourishing business by then. This would give wrong signals i.e., that we do not intend to stay with the company for long if we were to get the job. Be both honest and wise.

    ·      Ask good questions, but reserve your questions for the final stages of the interview, unless the interviewer encourages you to ask questions earlier. Put yourself in your interviewer’s place and think how you would feel. Questions about the job profile, company challenges, etc. are more relevant at an early stage of the interview than asking about the kind of package they have in mind for the position. In fact, reserve salary-related questions for the final stage or for the next level of interview.

    Frequently Asked Questions

    These are vary with the kind of job you’re being interviewed for, the kind of interviewer you have and a variety of other circumstances. At the same time, it’s good to be prepared with answers for most of the questions given below.

    Some general questions might relate to the following points:

    ·      Your failures and successes at work, regarding life in general.

    ·      Your role model

    ·      Why you feel you’re right for this company. (Why should we hire you?)

    ·      Your strengths and weaknesses.

    ·      Something about yourself. (Practice this well. Talk about professional aspects rather than personal ones).

    ·      How would you feel working with someone who knows less about work than you do.

    ·      Why you would like to work in that organization.

      Interview Questions to Prepare

    1.     Tell me about a time when you succeeded. What was the occasion, and how did you feel?

    2.     Tell me about a failure you had?

    3.     Are you comfortable with relocating?

    4.     Tell me about a role model you have, or a person who really made a difference in your life?

    5.     What attracted you to this company? (You can’t say you needed a job and applied wherever you could)

    6.     What did you like least about your previous job? (if there was one) Why are you looking for a change?

    7.     Tell me something about yourself. (it’s sometimes good to ask where you should start, though

            generally interviewers are      interested in our work strengths and academic/work backgrounds.)

    8.     If your previous/current employers were to describe you professionally, what would they say about   you?

    9.     What are you most proud of in your life?

    10.   What do you feel about working with a boss younger than you?

    11.   What do you feel about working with someone who knows less about sphere of work than you do?

    12.   What are your strong points?

    13.   What do you think are your areas of weakness? (Remember, you can’t get out of this one by saying you don’t have any weaknesses. That would be a one sided picture. But at the same time, don’t overdo your negative aspects, and if possible, make the negatives sound like honest positives.)

    14.   What is your life-long dream?

    -This helps the interviewer know what kind of work satisfies and challenge you;

    -It also gives the interviewer an idea about what you expect in the job you have applied for.

    15. Where do see yourself five/ten years from now?

    16. Describe your work strengths. It’s good to be specific, not general or vague. For instance:

     a. I do what it takes to get a job done, even if it means working ten-hour days.

     b. I’m considered efficient and organized.

     c. I pay attention to detail.

     17. Why should we hire you?

      a. Explain concisely why you feel you would be a good fit in the company. For this you will need to take stock of what the      company needs and what you have to offer.

      b. Project your strengths positively. For example: “I never miss a deadline.”

      18. Why do you want to work here? If asked this question, show that you know and like some things about the company. Share such information, then say how you feel you would be the right fit for the job.

    Remember, it’s important to make the company feel that you are right for the job because of the qualities and experience you have, rather than to protect yourself as an opportunist.

    Telephonic interview 

    In these days when telephonic interviews have become a way of life, some tips on how to face them are essential.

    ·       Keep your resume in clear view, on the top of your desk, or tape it to the wall near the phone, so it’s at your fingertips when you need to answer questions.

    ·       Have a short list of your accomplishments available to review.

    ·       Have a pen and paper handy for note taking.

    ·       Turn call- waiting off so your call isn’t interrupted.

    ·       If the time isn’t convenient, ask if you could talk at another time and suggest some alternatives.

    ·       Clear the room-evict the kids and the pets.

    ·       Turn off the stereo and the T.V. close the door.


       Not as easy as it seems.

    ·        Friend or family member to conduct a mock interview.

    ·        Record it so you can see how you sound over the phone.

    ·        Listen to “ums” and “uhs” and “okays” and you can practice reducing them from your conversation.

       Some Dos & DON’Ts

    ·       Don’t smoke, chew gum, eat, or drink.

    ·       Do keep a glass of water handy, in case you need to wet your mouth.

    ·       Smile, Smiling will project a positive image to the listener and will change the tone of your voice.

    ·       Speak slowly and enunciate clearly

    ·       Use the person’s title (Mr. or Ms. and their last name.) only use the first name if they ask you to.

    ·       Don’t interrupt the interviewer.

    ·       Take your time- it’s perfectly acceptable to take a moment or two to collect your thoughts.

    ·       Give short answer.

    ·       Remember your goal is to set-up a face –to-face interview. After you thank the interviewer ask if it would be possible to meet in person.

  • Intonation

    MEANING OF INTONATION:  Intonation is the system of levels (rising and falling) and variations in pitch sequences within speech.

    Why  Intonation?? Your voice is a precision instrument that needs to be assessed regularly.

    ·        Awareness of intonation aids communication.

    ·        Incorrect intonation can result in misunderstandings.

    Elements of Intonation:

    ·        Word stress

    ·        Pitch of voice

    ·        Voice Quality

    ·        Pausing Effect

    WORD STRESS: In English, we do not say each syllable with the same force or strength. In one word, we accentuate ONE syllable. We say one syllable very loudly (big, strong, important) and all the other syllables very quietly.

    Types of Word Stress:

    ·        Tonic stress

    ·        New information stress

    ·        Emphatic stress

    ·        Contrastive stress

    Pitch of Voice: Pitch is primarily dependent on the rate of vibration of vocal cords... When the vocal cords are stretched, the pitch of voice increases.

    High Key:

    ·        Exclamation

    ·        Contrastivity

    ·        Echo/Repeat


    Low Key:

    ·        Co-reference, Appositives

    ·        Non-defining Relative Clauses

    ·        Statements of Opinion

    Voice quality: Voice quality is that component of speech which gives the primary distinction to a given speaker's voice when pitch and loudness are excluded. It involves both phonatory and resonator characteristics. Some of the descriptions of voice quality are harshness, breathiness and nasality.

    Pausing Effect: Appropriate pauses do add to the meaning of a speech and give interpreters time to gather their thoughts in order to provide a better interpretation.

    Tips to Improve your speaking Voice:

    ·        Breathe from your diaphragm

    ·        Use pitch

    ·        Moderate your volume

    ·        Articulate

    ·        Pausing effect

    ·        Practice breath control

    ·        Record your voice

    ·        Postures 














  • Know Your Personality
  •  Personality development

    Q 1. What do you understand by this very general term?

    Ans-  As per Webster, personality means make up, disposition, nature, character and development to mean growth, expansion, progress, evolution, maturing…….

    Therefore, personality development means-

    Growth in personal character

    Growth in personal nature

    Progress, evolution, maturing.

    In other words, anyone can develop his/her personality through conscious effort towards the attainment of a better self. It is a process and not a result; it is ongoing, constant. An average person can become better and a developed person acan attain greatness when she concentrates on self-improvement.

    Personality is made up of several factors and is judged by how an individual reacts to situations and people and what impressions are made upon people during these interactions. A good way of defining it would be to say that personality is the sum total of our outer form and inner qualities.

    Q 2 Do you know the different personality types?

    Ans. There are countless varieties of people on earth; the broad personality types are:-

    The Extrovert:  these are bold, daring, fun loving people who always communicate first and attempt to be ‘can do’ kind of individuals.

    The Introvert: reserved, shy and responding to communicate with some persuasion. Also ‘can do’ individuals but within closed doors.

    The Ambivert: a middle ground holder. Checks and acts, depending on the situation s/he is in. Content the ways/he is.

    The Positive: Plus, charged, willing to take chances, succeeds more often than fails and treats failure as a step towards success.

    The Negative:  negative, minus, rarely smiles, blames others instead of taking charge.

    Although there are various combinations, it is easy to understand personality with the help of these guidelines.

    Q 3. How would you define Attitude?

    Ans. Attitude is a person’s standpoint, his viewpoint that leads to his responses to different stimuli. It is often the single most important trait with which one can move from failure to success and vice versa. Attitude can convert negative situations into positive opportunities and a last minute negative viewpoint can lead to missed changes. Like other inner traits, attitude can be developed at any point in life. Helping one to lead a joyful life; but first, one must accept and understand, through introspection, why one has a particular viewpoint and then accept the need to change it for better results. Attitudes can be positive or negative.

    Q 4. What factors lead to attitude formation?

    Ans. Attitude form easily and from the very early stages of one’s life. From early childhood, through adolescence and into adulthood and maturity, attitudes from and change all the time. To a large extent, it is up to us to positive family develops positive attitudes and gives us a ‘can do’ spirit while cautionaing us about risks we may face.

    Reference group-this includes our teachers, peers, neighbours, books, magazines, newspaper, television channels and almost anything we come into contact with.

    Social groups- a limited social group develops a limited understanding of people and may develop a fragmented attitude. The more varied one’s group-the interacts with different societies, knowledge banks, economics levels, cultures/ languages, the more globally oriented does one become.

    Different personalities- one interacts with people of different personalities, IQs and backgrounds. This affects and shapes one’s attitude too.

    Q 5. What do you understand by Time Management? Where do we find its applications?

    Ans. Time Management can be defined as applying management principles which help in maximizing the value of time by including those activities which produce positive results and rejecting those activities which either waste time or produce negative results.

    Applications of time management cover almost all aspects of life:

    Children use timetables in schools.

    Executives use dairies and planners.

    Housewives use calendars.

    We commonly hear people say they don’t have the time, but good time managers always find the time to do what they have to. What is more, they are always on time. Hence they are respected and reach high positions in life. They are called successful. We should all learn to value time as it is, indeed, precious.

    Q 6. What are the blocks to Time Management?

    Ans. There are several blocks to time management and top five are:

    ·         People tend to do things they like and ignore things they don’t.

    ·         Lack of discipline

    ·         Procrastination-always putting off things to a later time/date.

    ·         Weak interests in life. It is good to have dynamic goals so that one becomes goal and time oriented.

    ·         Improper reference groups-a negative group will never allow productive activities to be performed. People with low self-esteem pull others down whereas those with high self-esteem encourage others.


    Q 7. How can we improve Time Management?

    Ans . Improving one’s skills in time management is quite simple-

    a)      Prioritize: write down all the things you have to do and put the most important one first. Do not go by what you like but what’s important.

              Do it now: stop keeping things pending and force yourself to do it NOW. Every job done is a small goal achieved.

    c)      Set goals, achieve goals: people with distinct goals decide what to do and when.

    d)     Put things in writing: don’t try to remember everything. Carry a small dairy/jotting pad and write down important things.

    e)     Use wasted time: examples of wasted time are time used for commuting and waiting. Learn to delegate. But always take time commitment from the person you are delegating to.


    Q 8. What do you understand by motivation? How can we keep ourselves motivated?

    Ans. Motivation can be defined as the factors that arouse, stimulate and propel people to achieve a desired result. Its study is to discover what makes individuals and teams produce results and why some people perform better than others. Money, power, recognition, advancement are considered some important motivators.

    It is very important to keep ourselves motivated all the time. We can do this in the following ways-

    ·         Exercise regularly i.e. even three times a week.

    ·         Use pick-me-ups or positive self-instructions like “I like myself” and ‘I am special’.

    ·         Make positive friends and associates with motivated people.

    ·         Read good books on health, attitude, communication and self-awareness.

    ·         Persist and always remember that a winner never quits and a quitter never wins.


    Q 9. What is communication and what are the basics for good communication?

    Ans. It is difficult to sum this up briefly as communication has multiple connotations but broadly speaking, communication is the transmitting of information; it is the sharing of meaning and includes reaching across with ideas, facts, thoughts, feelings and values.

    The basics for good communication are-

    ·         Eye contact

    ·         Voice modulation

    ·         Pronunciation

    ·         Sincerity

    ·         Courtesy

    ·         Elimination of offending words

    ·         Empathy

    ·         Specific/ precision

    ·         Synchronized body language/posture

    ·         Gestures that are fine tuned

    ·         Facial expressions

    ·         Dress and grooming

    ·         Attitude


    Secrets of Successful Dealing with people

    Think and act for others.

    Make them feel superior or important and wanted.

    Praise others. They need it.

    Be warm & gracious.

    Be an attentively good listener.

    Do not find faults only.

    Render sympathy.

    Never show your full bags of tricks.

    Always maintain a slight edge of mystery.

    If you are wrong about something- admit it.

  • Leadership
  • Definition:

    The leadership is the art of motivating a group of people to act towards achieving a common goal.


    1.    What the leader expect from his teammates?

    Ans: Co-ordination

    2.    What should teammates expect from the leader?

    Ans: Support

    Leadership-The Intergal Role:

    The effective leader  balances the TASK, TEAM and INDIVIDUAL NEEDS.

    §  If you’re a leader who focuses more on the task, are you perceived as being too driven, risking everyone – including you – getting burn-out?

    §  If you’re a leader who focuses more on the individual, are you perceived of favouritism, causing rifts and friction in the team?

    §  And if you’re a leader who focuses more on the team, is the atmosphere like a club, where everyone’s having a good time, and the task isn’t getting done?


    §  This doesn’t mean allocating equal amounts of time on each need. It’s about allocating the appropriate amount of time depending on the specific task and experience of the team members.

    §  So what can you take from this? Intuitively – and if you’re honest with yourself – you will know where your focus tends to be. Alternatively, you can seek feedback from a trusted confidant or complete. The Action Centred Leadership Model is about leadership as a function rather than a single person.

    ‘Before you are a leader, success is all about growing yourself. When you become a leader, success is all about growing others’

    Leardership- The Influence Factors:

    Leader himself:

    ·         Personality, Beliefs.

    ·         Preferred Style


    ·         Responsible

    ·         Lazy

    ·         Dependant

    ·         Confidence

    ·         In leader


    ·         Organization

    ·         Culture

    ·         Time Pressure

    Principles of Leadership

    ·         Know yourself seek self improvement.

    ·         Be technically proficient

    ·         Seek responsibility and take responsibility for your actions.

    ·         Make sound and timely decisions.

    ·         Set the example.

    ·         Know your people and look out their well-being.

    ·         Develop a sense of responsibility in your workers.

    ·         Ensure that takes are understand, supervised and accomplished.

    ·         Train as a team.

    ·         Use full capabilities of your organization.

    Successful Leader were those:

    • Whose bosses gave them more freedom.
    • Who were more employment centered.
    • Who encouraged their subordinates to contribute ideas on how best to proceed.

    Ideas to be followed-Idea One

    Get the “Vision Thing”


    Creating a clear picture of the future that ‘stimulates, excites and inspires’.

    Vision sees what must be tomorrow, beyond what is today.

    Vision is clarity, it inspires.

    Ensuring that everyone understands what’s expected of them.

    Turning expectations into meaningful goals and targets.

    Communicating progress continuously.

    Celebrating successes.

    Working ‘On’ it consistently.

    Idea Two:

    Value Your Values:

    Harley Davidson’s Values

    Tell The Truth                                               Be Fair

    Keep Your Promises                                   Respect The Individual

    Encourage Intellectual Curiosity  Mutually Beneficial Relationships.

    Idea Three:

    It’s Not What You Say…

    It’s What You DO!

    Idea Four:

    Be a Role model…

    “There’s no ‘I’ in ‘Team’, but there is a ‘Me’ if you look hard enough”

    Idea Five:

    Get ‘Engaged’ in TEAM…

    Idea Six

    Give your people a good damn


    Idea Seven:


    Idea Eight


    Personal Qualities of Team Leader:

    ·         Integrity

    ·         Dedication

    ·         Magnanimity

    ·         Humility

    ·         Openness

    ·         Creativity

    ·         Fairness

    ·         Assertiveness

    ·         Sense of humor

    Leading a team:

          Multiple Styles

         Find your own style

          Lead – don’t be the whole team

         You can’t do everything yourself

          Lead – don’t follow

         Don’t let the team members drive the team

          Lead – don’t drive

         Don’t be a dictator

    Characteristics of Good Team Leader:

    ·         A Willingness To Serve And Support His/Her Team.

    ·         An Ability To Build His/Her Team

    ·         Confidence And Expertise.

    ·         An ability to inspire and motivate

    ·         Coolness under pressure.

    ·         A willingness to Shoulder Responsibility

    ·         Quick, positive Decision-Making

    ·         Great Communication Skills

    A Leadership Story:

    A group of workers and their leaders are set a task of clearing a road through a dense jungle on a remote island to get to the coast. The leaders organised the labour into efficient units and monitor the distribution and use of capital assets – progress is excellent. The leaders continue to monitor and evaluate progress, making adjustments along the way to ensure the progress is maintained and efficiency increased wherever possible.

    Then, one day amidst all the hustle and bustle and activity, one person climbs up a nearby tree. The person surveys the scene from the top of the tree and shouts down to the assembled group below…

    “Wrong Way!”

    “Management is doing things right, leadership is doing the right things”

    Leader v/s Manager

    Leaders and Managers can be compared on the following basis:





    A person becomes a manager by virtue of his position.

    A person becomes a leader on basis of his personal qualities.

    Formal Rights

    Manager has got formal rights in an organization because of his status.

    Rights are not available to a leader.


    The subordinates are the followers of managers.

    The group of employees whom the leaders leads are his followers.


    A manager performs all five functions of management.

    Leader influences people to work willingly for group objectives.


    A manager is very essential to a concern.

    A leader is required to create cordial relation between person working in and for organization.


    It is more stable.

    Leadership is temporary.

    Mutual Relationship

    All managers are leaders.

    All leaders are not managers.


    Manager is accountable for self and subordinates behaviour and performance.

    Leaders have no well defined accountability.


    A manager’s concern is organizational goals.

    A leader’s concern is group goals and member’s satisfaction.


    People follow manager by virtue of job description.

    People follow them on voluntary basis.

    Role continuation

    A manager can continue in office till he performs his duties satisfactorily in congruence with organizational goals.

    A leader can maintain his position only through day to day wishes of followers.


    Manager has command over allocation and distribution of sanctions.

    A leader has command over different sanctions and related task records. These sanctions are essentially of informal nature.


    Tips for Improving Leader Effectiveness:

    ·         Listen

    ·         Examine

    ·         Assist

    ·         Develop

    ·         Encourage

    ·         Recognize

    ·         Autocratic Leadership

    ·         Bureaucratic Leadership

    ·         Charismatic Leadership

    ·         Democratic/participative leadership.

    ·         Laissez-faire leadership.

    ·         People/relations-oriented leadership.

    ·         Servant leadership.

    ·         Task-oriented leadership.

    ·         Transactional leadership.

    ·         Transformational leadership.

    Autocratic Leadership

    Autocratic leadership is an extreme form of transactional leadership, where leaders have a lot of power over their people. Staff and team members have little opportunity to make suggestions, even if these would be in the team's or the organization's best interest.

    The benefit of autocratic leadership is that it's incredibly efficient. Decisions are made quickly, and work gets done efficiently.

    The downside is that most people resent being treated this way. Therefore, autocratic leadership can often lead to high levels of absenteeism and high staff turnover. However, the style can be effective for some routine and unskilled jobs: in these situations, the advantages of control may outweigh the disadvantages.

    Autocratic leadership is often best used in crises, when decisions must be made quickly and without dissent. For instance, the military often uses an autocratic leadership style; top commanders are responsible for quickly making complex decisions, which allows troops to focus their attention and energy on performing their allotted tasks and missions.

    Bureaucratic Leadership

    Bureaucratic leaders work "by the book." They follow rules rigorously, and ensure that their people follow procedures precisely.

    This is an appropriate leadership style for work involving serious safety risks (such as working with machinery, with toxic substances, or at dangerous heights) or where large sums of money are involved. Bureaucratic leadership is also useful in organizations where employees do routine tasks (as in manufacturing).

    The downside of this leadership style is that it's ineffective in teams and organizations that rely on flexibility, creativity, or innovation.

    Much of the time, bureaucratic leaders achieve their position because of their ability to conform to and uphold rules, not because of their qualifications or expertise. This can cause resentment when team members don't value their expertise or advice.

    Charismatic Leadership

    A charismatic leadership style can resemble transformational leadership because these leaders inspire enthusiasm in their teams and are energetic in motivating others to move forward. This ability to create excitement and commitment is an enormous benefit.

    The difference between charismatic leaders and transformational leaders lies in their intention. Transformational leaders want to transform their teams and organizations. Charismatic leaders are often focused on themselves, and may not want to change anything.

    The downside to charismatic leaders is that they can believe more in themselves than in their teams. This can create the risk that a project or even an entire organization might collapse if the leader leaves. A charismatic leader might believe that she can do no wrong, even when others are warning her about the path she's on; and this feeling of invincibility can ruin a team or an organization.

    Also, in the followers' eyes, success is directly connected to the presence of the charismatic leader. As such, charismatic leadership carries great responsibility, and it needs a long-term commitment from the leader.

    Democratic/Participative Leadership

    Democratic leaders make the final decisions, but they include team members in the decision-making process. They encourage creativity, and team members are often highly engaged in projects and decisions.

    There are many benefits of democratic leadership. Team members tend to have high job satisfaction and are productive because they're more involved in decisions. This style also helps develop people's skills. Team members feel in control of their destiny, so they're motivated to work hard by more than just a financial reward.

    Because participation takes time, this approach can slow decision-making, but the result is often good. The approach can be most suitable when working as a team is essential, and when quality is more important than efficiency or productivity.

    The downside of democratic leadership is that it can often hinder situations where speed or efficiency is essential. For instance, during a crisis, a team can waste valuable time gathering people's input. Another downside is that some team members might not have the knowledge or expertise to provide high quality input.

    Laissez-Faire Leadership

    This French phrase means "leave it be," and it describes leaders who allow their people to work on their own. This type of leadership can also occur naturally, when managers don't have sufficient control over their work and their people.

    Laissez-faire leaders may give their team complete freedom to do their work and set their own deadlines. They provide team support with resources and advice, if needed, but otherwise don't get involved.

    This leadership style can be effective if the leader monitors performance and gives feedback to team members regularly. It is most likely to be effective when individual team members are experienced, skilled, self-starters.

    The main benefit of laissez-faire leadership is that giving team members so much autonomy can lead to high job satisfaction and increased productivity.

    The downside is that it can be damaging if team members don't manage their time well or if they don't have the knowledge, skills, or motivation to do their work effectively.

     People Oriented/Relations Oriented Leadership

    With people-oriented leadership, leaders are totally focused on organizing, supporting, and developing the people on their teams. This is a participatory style and tends to encourage good teamwork and creative collaboration. This is the opposite of task-oriented leadership.

    People-oriented leaders treat everyone on the team equally. They're friendly and approachable, they pay attention to the welfare of everyone in the group, and they make themselves available whenever team members need help or advice.

    The benefit of this leadership style is that people-oriented leaders create teams that everyone wants to be part of. Team members are often more productive and willing to take risks, because they know that the leader will provide support if they need it.

    The downside is that some leaders can take this approach too far; they may put the development of their team above tasks or project directives.

    Servant Leadership

    This term, created by Robert Greenleaf in the 1970s, describes a leader often not formally recognized as such. When someone at any level within an organization leads simply by meeting the needs of the team, he or she can be described as a "servant leader."

    Servant leaders often lead by example. They have high integrity and lead with generosity.

    In many ways, servant leadership is a form of democratic leadership because the whole team tends to be involved in decision making. However, servant leaders often "lead from behind," preferring to stay out of the limelight and letting their team accept recognition for their hard work.

    Supporters of the servant leadership model suggest that it's a good way to move ahead in a world where values are increasingly important, and where servant leaders can achieve power because of their values, ideals, and ethics. This is an approach that can help to create a positive corporate culture and can lead to high morale among team members.

    However, other people believe that in competitive leadership situations, people who practice servant leadership can find themselves left behind by leaders using other leadership styles. This leadership style also takes time to apply correctly: it's ill-suited in situations where you have to make quick decisions or meet tight deadlines.

    Although you can use servant leadership in many situations, it's often most practical in politics, or in positions where leaders are elected to serve a team, committee, organization, or community.

    Task Oriented Leadership

    Task-oriented leaders focus only on getting the job done and can be autocratic. They actively define the work and the roles required, put structures in place, and plan, organize, and monitor work. These leaders also perform other key tasks, such as creating and maintaining standards for performance.

    The benefit of task-oriented leadership is that it ensures that deadlines are met, and it's especially useful for team members who don't manage their time well.

    However, because task-oriented leaders don't tend to think much about their team's well-being, this approach can suffer many of the flaws of autocratic leadership, including causing motivation and retention problems.

    Transactional Leadership

    This leadership style starts with the idea that team members agree to obey their leader when they accept a job. The "transaction" usually involves the organization paying team members in return for their effort and compliance. The leader has a right to "punish" team members if their work doesn't meet an appropriate standard.

    Although this might sound controlling and paternalistic, transactional leadership offers some benefits. For one, this leadership style clarifies everyone's roles and responsibilities. Another benefit is that, because transactional leadership judges team members on performance, people who are ambitious or who are motivated by external rewards – including compensation – often thrive.

     stifling, and it can lead to high staff turnover.

    Transactional leadership is really a type of management, not a true leadership style, because the focus is on short-term tasks. It has serious limitations for knowledge-based or creative work. However, it can be effective in other situations.

    Transformational Leadership

    As we discussed earlier in this article, transformation leadership is often the best leadership style to use in business situations.

    Transformational leaders are inspiring because they expect the best from everyone on their team as well as themselves. This leads to high productivity and engagement from everyone in their team.

    The downside of transformational leadership is that while the leader's enthusiasm is passed onto the team, he or she can need to be supported by "detail people."

    That's why, in many organizations, both transactional and transformational leadership styles are useful. Transactional leaders (or managers) ensure that routine work is done reliably, while transformational leaders look after initiatives that add new value.

    It's also important to use other leadership styles when necessary – this will depend on the people you're leading and the situation that you're in.

    Factors Effecting Leadership

    Risk - decision making and change initiatives based on degree of risk involved

    Type of business – creative business
    or supply driven?

    Importance of change –change for change’s sake?

    Organisational culture – may be long embedded and difficult to change

    Nature of the task – needing cooperation? Direction? Structure?

    Leadership Mistakes to Avoid:

    ·         Power Hungry

    • Can't or Won't Delegate Responsibility
    • Lack of Industry/Product Knowledge

    ·         Unwilling to Lead

    ·         Unwilling to adapt to change

    ·         Won’t accept others idea

    ·         Blaming others

    ·         Not watching their Teammates Back

    ·         Taking credits for others ideas

    ·         Not Surroundings themselves with good people.


    Ask these Questions to Yourselfs:

          How focused am I?

          How much of my time do I spend communicating and inspiring people about our mission, vision and strategic goals?

          Am I viewed as authentic?

          Do people see and hear the real me?

          Do I wear a mask at work, and remove it when I leave each evening?

          How courageous am I when my values, vision and goals are challenged?

          Do I stand firm and only change my position when I know that I am wrong?

          How empathetic am I?

          Do I create enough opportunities for open and candid dialogue?


  • Leadership Activities
  • Personal Grooming
  •  Personal grooming

    What is Personal Grooming????

    It is the art of cleaning, grooming and maintaining parts of the body. It has a lot to do with hygiene and personality development. Your appearance is a statement of who you are. You clothing and grooming should create an image that is positive and appealing.

    Goals of Grooming

    Feel good factor.

    Project a positive image.

    Positive attitude is developed.

    Enhance confidence.

    First Impression

    First impression is the last impression. It takes just few seconds to judge many personality traits. Remember “A Picture is worth thousand words” and it is the picture you create, that matters. Give an impression that you are competent, knowledgeable and professional.

    First impression 93% rule

    It is proven that the body language and the way you speak and appear in front of someone, matter a great deal. As big as 93% is the effect one can create through a mere pleasant as well as well groomed personality.

    Effective body language

    Having correct eye contact.

    Get your posture right.

    Use straight head position to feel confident and self assured.

    Have a proper arm position. A professional arm position is to keep your arms on side of your body or behind your back.

    Keep your legs still to avoid any nervous signals.

    Use proper head gestures.

    Have correct mouth movements. Have a smile.

    Professional clothing for men and women

    Keep in mind that any attire may be a suit, skirt or blouse etc. should be totally professional. Your confidence and attitude is affected by the way you dress up. So, dress up smartly but ethically.

    Business colours

    Dark colours are authoritative.

    Medium shades are more approachable.

    Pastel and light colours are not viewed as ‘business colours’.

    Accessories for Women

    You should also choose jewelry wisely.

    Don’t wear anything that is too gaudy or bulky.

    Make sure that the jewelry selections compliment your outfit and do not draw too much attention.

    Your choices should be subtle.

    Steer away from dangling earrings.

    Limit your bracelets to one per wrist and limit your rings to one per hand.

    Accessories for Men

    It is hard to stay focused in a meeting when your aching foot is the only thing on your mind…

    Your shoes complement your outfit selection.

    Make sure that your shoes are clean and polished.

    You should always wear shoes that cover your entire foot, so stay away from open-toed shoes.

    Choose shoes that are comfortable for your feet.


    Your hair and nails should be clean and well-groomed.

     Limit your hair color choices to natural selections.

    Never use excessive amounts of hair products and hair accessories.

    Secure your hair away from your face so that your professional counterparts can make easy eye contact.


    Avoid bright and overpowering nail colors.

    It is generally a good idea to keep your nails short to medium length.


    Voice should be impressive and confident.

    Voice should carry a positive attitude.

    A person can be judged quickly through his/her voice and so use your voice to perfection.

    Have proper diction and pronunciation.

    Tone of voice should be apt.

    Loudness of voice should be just correct. You should be audible but at the same time you should not shout.

    Avoid using slangs. In corporate environment slangs like cool etc. sound very unprofessional.

    The Handshake

    Begin with an oral introduction of yourself.

    Pump your hand only 2-3 times.

    Shake from your elbow.

    Do not use a forceful grip.

    Avoid offering a ‘limp hand’.

    One hand is better than two.

    Don’t wipe hands after you handshake with one having a sweaty palm.

    End handshake in 3-4 seconds.

    Cover your handshake mistakes quickly.


    Have basic conversational etiquettes.

    Proper telephonic etiquettes.

    Electronic communication etiquettes.

    Dining etiquettes.

    General etiquettes: politeness, well mannered and good reputation.

    No Sticking

    Ensure that breathe is fresh.

    No smelly socks.

    Ensure that sweat odor is not coming.

    Enhancing Personality Traits

    Get over stage fright to building speaking confidence.

    Avoid negative thinking.

    Control your anger and jealousy.

    Improve spoken English.

    Manage time well.

    Get rid of insecurities.

    Break bad habits.

    Facts for You

    A recent survey showed:

    That woman who wear make-up have a competitive edge over their bare faced colleagues.

    Woman who wear make-up earn, on average , 20% more than women who wear no make up.

    One in a four man do not shower daily.

    Dirty fingernails go unclean.

    Nose hairs remains unplucked.

    Grooming tips

    Keep hair cleaned, trimmed and combed.

    Men should be clean shaven and/or keep moustache or beard neatly trimmed.

    Women should wear make-up sparingly.

    Keep fingernails clean, trimmed and neat.

    Keep teeth brushed and breathe fresh.

    Beware of food odors. Use a breath mint if needed.

    Be freshly bathed and use deodorant.

    Use perfumes/colognes sparingly or none at all.

  • Personal Information
  • 1

    What do you do…?

    I work in a private company.


    Is your mother a working woman?

    No, she is a homemaker.


    What are you doing….?

    I am looking for a job.


    What does your mother do…?

    She is a homemaker.


    What are you doing…?

    I am doing my final year


    How many brothers and sisters have you got….?

    I have a brother and a sister


    Which college?

    The Presidency college.


    How many brothers and sisters are you..?

    We are two brothers and a sister.


    What does your father do…?

    He works in a government department.


    What do they do..?

    My brother is in college and my sister goes to school.


    What does your father do…?

    He is in business


    Are you from Delhi?

    No, I am from Chandigarh.


    What is your father..?

    He is an engineer.


    Where do you live?

    I live in Moti Nagar


    Hi, Rakesh how are people at home….?



    Where are you living..?

    I am living in Tilak Nagar


    Hello, Ashok. How are folks (people) at home…?

    Doing Well.


    Where is your house..?

    It’s in R.K Nagar


    What does your Dad do….?

    He works in the PNB Bank


    What language do you speak at home..?

    We speak Hindi.

  • Power
  • Power: Meaning

    Power refers to capacity that A has to influence the behavior of B so that B acts in accordance with A’s wishes.

    Types of Power

    A)    Formal power

    B)    Personal power

    Formal power




    Coercive power

    A power base dependent on fear


    Reward power

    Compliance achieved based on the ability to distribute rewards that other view as valuable


    Legitimate power

    The power a person receive as a result of his or her position in the formal hierarchy of an org.


    Personal power

    Sq. No.




    Expert power

    Influences based on special skill or knowledge


    Referent power

    Influences based on possess by an individual of desirable resources or personal traits


    Key to Power: Dependency

    Function: Power is a function of a dependency, Greater B’s dependence on A, the greater is A’s power in the relationship

    A person can have power over you only if he or she controls something you desire.

    What creates dependency?

    Dependency will increase when the resource you control is important, scarce, and non-substitutable.

    1)      Importance – If nobody wants what you’ve got, it’s not going to create dependency. To create dependency, therefore the thing you control must be perceived as being importance.

    2)      Scarcity – If something is plentiful, a possession of it will not increase your power. To create dependency, the things you control must be rare.  

    3)      Non-substitutability - The resources you hold must not be used in place of others.

    Power Tactics: (9 tactics)

    Ways in which individuals translate power bases into specific actions.

    1)      Legitimacy- Relying on one’s authority position or stressing that a request is in according with organizational policies or rule

    2)      Rational persuasion – Presenting logical arguments and factual evidence to demonstrate that a request is reasonable

    3)      Inspirational appeal – Developing emotional commitment by appealing to target’s values, needs, hopes and aspirations.

    4)      Consultation – increasing the target’s motivation and support by involving him or her in deciding how the plan or change will be done.

    5)      Exchange – Rewarding the target with benefits of favor in exchange for following a request.

    6)      Personal appeal – asking for compliance based on friendship or loyalty

    7)       Ingratiation- using flattery, praise, or friendly behavior prior to making a request.

    8)      Pressure- using warnings, repeated demands and threat.

    9)      Coalitions – Enlisting the aid of other people to persuade the target or using the support of others as a reason for the target to others.



  • Public Speaking And Presentations
  •  Public speaking and presentation

    Session structure

    ·         Public speaking skills

    ·         Discussing the imperatives

    ·         Elements of a good presentation

    ·         Preparing the presentation


    Public speaking skills

    We need to be able to speak in public, weather in front of a class or a group at work. The thought is more frightening than the reality, even if speaking in public is for most people an experience they would give anything to run away from. Remember to do the thing you fear, and you will stop fearing it. In fact, you will get much better as you bravely practice; and to know that it gets better and better, until one can be truly comfortable expressing one’s views in public.


    Some tips for getting started

    ·         Conquer nervousness by preparing what you want to say, and then continuously practicing it.

    ·         Know that speaking is an acquired skill; no one is born with it. So go ahead and acquire. Practice, practice, practice.

    ·         Know also that what you fear today speaking in public-might allow you to express yourself really well and improve your relationships in every sphere of life. Do that which you fear.

    ·         Don’t think you’re the only nervous one. Everyone hesitates to speak in front of an audience, almost without exception. If you’re apprehensive about speaking in front of your seniors, remember that your seniors worry about the same thing with theirs! Work through that initial nervousness you feel. Don’t run away and gradually it will diminish.

    ·         Start by speaking clearly and confidently with your friends and family members. Observe how we are generally not quite clear and fluent in personal situations. Relate jokes and experiences to get into the habit of speaking in public.

    ·         Act confident and you will become confident. Fake it until you make it.


    The meaning of preparation is not to pick up text or phrases from a book, learn them by heart and then rattle them off, hoping you won’t forget a word or phrase! It means to research on a topic, find all you can about it. It also mean to understand, digest, put into the right order, use your own words and put your feeling into every word you write and say. When you speak from the heart it touches other hearts.


    After preparation comes practice. You do not need to learn the words by heart; in fact, you shouldn’t. Keep your points noted down in order on a card you may want to carry with you. Practice your speech many times how you say the words, the clarity, the feeling, the expression, the correctness…everything. You may want to practice in front of a trusted friend or on your own. See what makes you comfortable.

    Facing your fears

    What makes you nervous? You are nervous that you don’t know enough about the topic, or that others know more, or that something may go wrong. If you don’t know, make it your business to know. You’ve already prepared, so you have what’s needed. Don’t let that part worry you anymore. If a few others know more, that’s okay; by now, you probably know much more about the topic than your audience. And if something goes wrong like if you forget something quickly refer to your card, smile, and continue.

    Elements of a good presentation

    Presentations are a way of communicating ideas and information to a group. A good presentation has:

    ·         Content: it contains information that people need. It must account for how much information the audience can absorb in one sitting.

    ·         Structure: it has a logical beginning, middle and end. It must be sequenced and paced so that the audience can understand it.

    ·         Packaging: it must be prepared.

    ·         Human Element: a good presentation will be remembered because it has a person attached to it.

    The voice

    The voice is probably the most valuable tool of the presenter. It carries most of the content that the audience takes away. One of the oddities of speech is that we can easily tell others what is wrong with their voice, e.g. too fast, too high, too soft, etc., but we have trouble listening to and changing our own voices.

    Remember to modulate your voice in terms of:

    ·         Volume: How loud the sound is. The goal is to be heard without shouting. Good speakers lower their voice to draw the audience in, and raise it to make a point.

    ·         Tone: The characteristics of a sound. A voice that carries fear can frighten the audience, while voice carries laughter can get the audience to smile.

    ·         Pitch: How high or low a sound is.

    ·         Pace: This is how long a sound lasts. Talking too fast causes the words and syllables to be short, while talking slowly lengthens them. Varying the pace helps to maintain the audience’s interest.

    Body Language

    Your body communicates impressions to the audience. People not only listen to you, they also watch you. Slouching tells them you are indifferent or you do not care…even though you might care a great deal. On the other hand, displaying good posture tells your audience that you know what you are doing and you care deeply about it. Also, a good posture helps you to speak more clearly and effectively.

    Throughout your presentation, you should display:

    ·         Eye contact: Speakers who makes eye contact open the flow of communication and convey interest, concern, warmth and credibility. It’s good to sweep your gaze around the room and not to stare fixedly at any one individual.

    ·         Facial expressions: Smiling is a powerful cue that transmits happiness, friendliness, warmth and liking. So, if you smile frequently, you will be perceived as more likable, friendly, warm and approachable. Smiling is often contagious and others will react favorably. They will be more comfortable around you and will want to listen to you more.

    ·         Gestures: If you fail to gesture while speaking, you may be perceived as boring and stiff. A lively speaking style captures attention, makes the material more interesting, and facilities understanding.

    ·         Posture and body orientation: You communicate numerous messages by the way you talk and move. Standing erect and leaning forward communicates that you are approachable, receptive and friendly. Interpersonal closeness results when you and your audience face each other. Speaking with your back turned or looking at the floor or ceiling should be avoided as it communicates disinterest.

    ·         Proximity: Cultural norms dictate a comfortable distance for interaction with others. You should look for signals of discomfort caused by invading other’s space. Some of these are: rocking, leg swinging, tapping, and gaze aversion. Typically, in large rooms, space invasion is not a problem. In most instances there is too much distance. To counteract this, move around the room to increase interaction with your audience. Increasing the proximity enables you to make better eye contact and increases the opportunities for others to speak.

    ·         Voice modulation: When speakers use a monotone, listeners perceive this type of speaker as boring and dull. People report that they learn less and lose interest more quickly when listening to those who have not learned to modulate their voices. So remember to vary your voie to convey meaning during the presentation.

    Preparing the Presentation

    Great presentations require preplanning and researching. Gather all your material and then organize the information carefully. Remember to structure your presentation with a good introduction, body and powerful conclusion.


    ·         A good presentation starts out with introductions and an icebreaker such as a story, interesting statement or fact, joke, quotation, or an activity to get the group warmed up.

    ·         The introduction also needs an objective, that is, the purpose or goal of the presentation. This not only tells you what you will talk about, but it also informs the audience of the purpose of the presentation. List and discuss your objectives at the beginning of the presentation. Let the audience know how your presentation fits in with their goals. Discuss some of the fears and apprehensions that both you and the audience might have. Tell them what they should expect of you and how you will contribute to their goals.


    ·         Next comes to the body of the presentation. Do not write it out word for word.

    ·          All you want is an outline. By jotting down the main points on a set of index cards, you not only have your outline, but also a memory jogger for the actual presentation.


    To prepare the presentation, ask yourself the following:

    ·         What is the purpose of the presentation?

    ·         Who will be attending?

    ·         What does the audience already know about the subject?

    ·         What is the audience’s attitude towards me (e.g. hostile, friendly)?

    A 45 minutes talk should have no more than about seven main points. This may not seem like very many, but if you are to leave the audience with a clear picture of what you have said, you cannot expect them to remember much more than that.


    There are several options for structuring the presentation:

    ·         Timeline- Arranged in sequential order.

    ·         Climax- The main points are delivered in order of increasing importance.

    ·         Problem/Solution- A problem is presented, a solution is suggested, and benefits are then given.

    ·         Classification- The important items are the major points.

    ·         Simple to complex- Ideas are listed from the simplest to the most complex. Can also be done in reverse order.

    ·         Visuals- You might want to include some visual information that will help the audience understand your presentation. Develop charts, graphs, slides, handouts, etc.


    After the body, comes the closing. This is where you ask for questions, provide a wrap-up (summary), and thank the participants for attending.

    Notice that you told them what they are about to hear (the objective), told them the content (the body), and told them what they heard (the wrap up).

    Active listening

    Good speakers not only inform their audience, they also listen to them.  By listening , you know if they understand the information and if the information is important to them.

    Here are some traits for effective listening during presentation:

    ·         Spend more time listening than talking (but of course, as a presenter, you will be doing most of the talking).

    ·         Do not finish the sentence of others.

    ·         Do not answer questions with questions.

    ·         Be aware of biases. We all have them and we need to control them.

    ·         Never daydream or become preoccupied with your own thoughts when others talk.

    ·         Let the other speaker talk. Do not dominate the conversation.

    ·         Plan responses after others have finished speaking, not while they are speaking. Your full concentration should be on what others are saying, not on what you are going to respond with.

    ·         Analyse by looking at all the relevant factors and asking open-ended questions. Walk the person through analysis.

    ·         Centre the conversation on what the speaker says and what is relevant to the presentation.


    Always allow time at the end of the presentation for questions. After inviting questions, do not rush ahead if no one asks a question. Pause for about 6 seconds to allow the audience to gather their thoughts. When a question is asked, repeat the question to ensure that everyone heard it (and that you heard it correctly). When answering, direct your remarks to the entire audience. That way you keep everyone focused, not just the questioner. To reinforce your presentation, try to relate the question back to the main points.

    Make sure you listen to the question being asked. If you do not understand it, ask them to clarify. Pause to think about the question as the answer you give may be correct, but ignore the main issue. If you do not know the answer, be honest, do not waffle. Tell them you get back to them… and make sure you do.

    Answers that last 10 to 40 seconds work best. If they are too short, they seem abrupt; while longer answers appear too elaborate. Also, be sure to keep o track. Do not let off-the-wall questions sidetrack you into areas that are not relevant to the presentation.

    If someone takes issue with something you said, try to find a way to agree with part of their argument. For example, “Yes, I understand your position…”or” I’m glad you raised that point, but….” The idea is to praise their point and agree with them. Audience sometimes tend to think of “us against you.” You do not want to risk alienating them.

    Conquering nerves

    The main enemy of a presenter is tension, which ruins the voice, posture and spontaneity. The voice becomes higher as the throat tenses. Shoulders tighten up and limit flexibility while the legs start to shake and cause unsteadiness. The presentation becomes “canned” as the speaker locks in on the notes and starts to read directly from them. First, do not fight nerves, welcome them! Then you can get on with the presentation instead of focusing on your nervousness.

    Relaxation Exercise

    Performing some relaxation exercises can reduce tension. Here are some to get you started:

    ·         During the presentation: Take a moment to yourself by getting a drink of water, take a deep breath, concentrate on relaxing the most tense part of you body, and then return to the presentation saying to yourself, 2 I can do it!”

    ·         You do not need to get rid of anxiety and tension. Channel the energy into concentration and expressiveness.

    ·         Know that anxiety and tension are not a noticeable to the audience as they are to you.

    ·         Know that even the best presenters make mistakes. The key is to continue after the mistake. If you pick up and continue, so will the audience.

    Tips and Techniques for Great Presentations

    ·         If you have handouts, do not read straight from them. The audience does not know if they should read along with you or listen to you read.

    ·         Do not put both hands in your pockets for long periods of time. This tends to make you look unprofessional. It is okay to put one hand in a pocket but ensure there is no loose change or keys to jingle around. This will distract the listeners.

    ·         Do not wave a pointer round in the air; use the pointer for what it is intended and then pt it down.

    ·         Do not lean on the podium for long periods. The audience will begin to wonder when you are going to fall over.

    ·         Speak to the audience… not to the visual aids, such as flip charts or overheads. Also, do not stand between the visual aid and the audience.

    ·         Speak clearly and loudly enough for all to hear. Do not speak in a monotone voice. Use inflection to emphasize your main points.

    ·         Use coloured backgrounds on overhead transparencies and slides (such as yellow), as the bright white light can be harsh on the eyes. This will quickly cause your audience to tire. If all of your transparencies or slides have clear background, then tape one blank yellow one on the overhead face. For slides, use a rubber band to hold a piece of coloured cellophane over the projector lens.

    ·         Learn the name of each participant as quickly as possible. Based upon the atmosphere you want to create, call them by their first names or by using Mr., Mrs., Miss, Ms. with surnames

    ·         Tell them what name and title you prefer to be called.

    ·         Listen intently to comments and opinions. By using a lateral thinking technique (adding to ideas rather than dismissing them), the audience will feel that their ideas, comments and opinions are worthwhile.

    ·         Circulate around the room as you speak. This movement creates a physical closeness to the audience.

    ·         Vary your techniques (lecture, discussion, debate, films, slides, reading,etc.)

    ·         Get to the presentation before your audience arrives; and be the last one to leave.

    ·         When writing on flip chats use no more than 7 lines of text per page and no more than 7 words per line (the 7x7 rule). Also, use bright and bold colours, and pictures as well as text.

    ·         Consider the time of the day and how long you have for your talk. The time of day can influence your audience. An after lunch presentation is known as the graveyard section as audience will feel more like a nap than listening.

    ·         Most people find that if they practice in their head, the actual talk will take about 25 percent longer. Using a flip chart or other visual aids adds to the time. Remember, it is better to finish slightly early than to finish late.  

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